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One of the more striking aspects of drug research over the last few years is the relative upsurge of various models and theories explaining, wholly or in part, the problems of drug abuse. ln fact, this rapid growth has signaled the need for a single, concise, and widely available volume which would allow interested researchers to discover the existence, diversity, convergence, and complexity of the array of contemporary explanatory perspectives.

Undertaking the preparation of such a compendium was carefully considered. lt was our intent to present as many theories as practicable, in an open, nonjudgmental, noncritical manner, and to allow each theorist to speak for his or her own theory. The volume contains 43 theoretical perspectives representing the work of more than 50 theorists. l trust the reader will find this collection of ideas stimulating and will be encouraged to generate future research aimed at hypothesis and theory testing.

Marvin Snyder, Ph.D.

Director, Division of Research

National lnstitute on Drug Abuse

A Guide to the Volume

One of the early indications that a social problem research domain has come of age is the quantity and quality of the theoretical explanations for it. Over the last several years interest in research on the problems of drug dependence has grown dramatically. What is particularly striking is that each of a wide array of scientific disciplines has explored the problem. Drug dependence is a complex contemporary social problem. lts complexity derives in part from the impact it has on the individual user psychologically, socially, and biologically, and in part from its effects on society, law, economics, and politics.

The primary intent of this volume is to present a representative selection of contemporary theoretical orientations and perspectives in the drug abuse research field, derived from the social and biomedical sciences. Among our secondary aims and intents were these: (1) to produce a major reference volume for research scientists and other interested readers, (2) to afford theorists a forum in which to present their views, and (3) to allow readers to compare and contrast the diverse range of theories on drug abuse.

ln designing this volume, it was necessary to assure that each contributing theorist would have sufficient latitude in style of presentation and textual development, and yet that the reader would find comparable discussions of formalized issues so that convergences and divergences among and between the theories could be easily discerned. The solution to these apparently disparate aims was to divide the volume into two distinct parts. Part 1 of the volume contains 43 separate theoretical overviews, one for each of the theories or perspectives. Here, the contributors were given relatively free rein to present an overview of their positions. ln contrast, the second part of the volume is purposefully highly structured.

For practical purposes we needed a working definition for theories. The question became, "What is a theory of drug use/abuse, and what are its components?" ln general we viewed a theory as something which addressed at least several of the following topics: (1) why people begin taking drugs, (2) why people maintain their drug-taking behaviors, (3) how or why drug-taking behavior escalates to abuse, (4) why or how people stop taking drugs, and (5) what accounts for the restarting of the drug dependence behavior or cycle once stopped. The five chapters of part 2 refer to these five components of a theory, namely. lnitiation, Continuation, Transition: Use to Abuse, Cessation, and Relapse. lt was hoped that such an organizational framework would facilitate the reader's ability to compare and contrast the theories. ln order to facilitate cross-theory comparisons even further, a series of guides has been included in the volume. Additionally, we developed, in conjunction with the authors, a set of shorthand or abbreviated theory titles. Guide 1 is a listing of all contributing theorists and their affiliations. The second guide is a classification of the theories into four broad categories, theories on one's relationship to self, to others, to society, and to nature. A more specific classification of the theories by academic discipline appears in guide 3.

The most important of the guides is guide 4, Organization of the Volume. For each theory, this guide gives the pages on which the overview can be found in part 1, and the page numbers of the corresponding theoretical components (if any) in part 2.

Guide 5, Theory Boundaries, presents a concise, comparative summary of each theory, including its drug focus; the age, sex, and ethnicity of the population to which the theory applies; and a listing of the key variables inherent in the theory.

There are several ways to use this reference volume. One could of course read it straight through. One could read a particular theory overview in part 1 immediately followed by the corresponding sections or components in part 2. Or one may wish to focus on a specific theoretical component of interest in part 2 followed by selective reading of appropriate overview material in part 1. We hope that the volume's specialized format will encourage and facilitate its frequent use.

Dan J. Lettieri, Ph.D.

Chief, Psychosocial Branch

Division of Research

National lnstitute on Drug Abuse GUlDE 1.—Theorists

David P. Ausubel, M.D., Ph.D.
Graduate School and University Center
City University of New York

Hochschule der Bundeswehr
Munich, West Germany

Howard S. Becker, Ph.D.
Department of Sociology
Northwestern University
Evanston, lllinois

Nils Beierot, M.D.
Department of Social Medicine
Karolinska lnstitute
Stockholm, Sweden

Peter M. Bentler, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
University of California—Los Angeles

lsidor Chein, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
Research Center for Human Relations
New York University

Sandra B. Coleman, Ph.D.
Department of Mental Health Sciences
Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital

Achievement Through Counseling and

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Vincent P. Dole, M.D.
Rockefeller University
New York City

Calvin J. Frederick, Ph.D.
National lnstitute of Mental Health

Department of Psychiatry

The George Washington University

Washington, D.C.

William Frosch, M.D.
Drug/Alcohol lnstitute
Metropolitan State College
Denver, Colorado

Steven R. Gold, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
Western Carolina University
Cullowhee, North Carolina

Donald W. Goodwin, M.D.
Department of Psychiatry
University of Kansas Medical Center
Kansas City, Kansas

Robert A. Gordon, Ph.D.
Department of Social Relations
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, Maryland

Richard L. Gorsuch, Ph.D.
Graduate School of Psychology
Fuller Theological Seminary
Pasadena, Cal i fornia

George B. Greaves, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
Georgia State University

Herbert Hendin, M.D.
Center for Psychosocial Studies
Veterans Administration
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Hospital
Montrose, New York

Professor of Psychiatry
New York Medical College

Harris E. Hill, Ph.D. (retired)
National lnstitute of Mental Health
Addiction Research Center
Lexington, Kentucky

Mark Hochhauser, Ph.D.
Division of School Health Education
University of Minnesota

George J. Huba, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
University of California—Los Angeles

Richard Jessor, Ph.D.

Department of Psychology and lnstitute

of Behavioral Science University of Colorado Boulder

Shirley Jessor, Ph.D.

Department of Psychology and lnstitute of

Behavioral Science University of Colorado Boulder

Bruce D. Johnson, Ph.D.

New York State Division of Substance

Abuse Services
New York City

A. David Jonas, M.D.
University of Wurzburg
German Federal Republic

Doris F. Jonas, Ph.D.

Fellow, Royal Anthropological lnstitute

of Great Britain London

Denise B. Kandel, Ph.D.
School of Public Health and
Department of Psychiatry
Columbia University
New York City

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