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PERSONALITY-DEFICIENCY THEORY (p. 4)
Drug abuse is generally initiated as a result of an individual's social involvement with drug-using age-mates: The adolescent who is motivationally immature, in addition to commonly having ready access to drugs and living in a sociocultural milieu attitudinally tolerant of drug use, in contrast to his or her nonaddicted, motivationally mature fellows, experiences the tremendous adjustive value of the drug once overcoming its initial unpleasant consequences or side effects, such as nausea or vomiting. After about 10 to 14 days of multiple daily usage she or he becomes physiologically addicted and develops abstinence or withdrawal symptoms 6 to 12 hours after involuntary discontinuation of the drug.
ADDICTION-TO-PLEASURE THEORY (p. 246)
lnitiation into the use of addicting drugs may occur along at least four main routes (Bejerot 1975), which also have some byways.
The Therapeutic Route
Opiate dependence has been a dreaded complication of medical treatment for centuries. From the time that physicians learned to handle opiates, however, opiate dependence of a therapeutic type has become rare (apart from cancer cases and patients in terminal treatment).
Nowadays there are many persons in industrial countries who have become strongly dependent upon sedatives and hypnotics during medical treatment. This group has a large number of characteristics which have been well defined by Brill (1968) and Allgulander (1978), among others. The patients usually feel ashamed of and guilty about their drug dependence and try to hide it from even their nearest relatives. The tendency to spread this form of addiction to others is therefore very small, almost nonexistent. The frequency of these therapeutic