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manent and constant, and unaffected by intermediate forms which would lessen the probability of their distinctness. The wolf and dog we already intimated, are not improbably one species.

We next come to the “Question of Hybrids.” Our author remarks,—"There are a great variety of hybrids, running through the whole chain of animated nature, in both animal and vegetable kingdoms." If he means by this that hy. brids are common in the wild state, the statement is not correct. Hybrid plants are rarely met with in nature, and among animals we can now recal but the single instance of the wood grouse and the female of the black cock in the mountains of Bohemia, which was but a casual thing, and the offspring were infertile.

"Some (most ?) hybrids do not breed-as the mule for example. There are rare instances of their having propagated when crossed back on one of the parent stocks. There are other hybrids which do propagate perfectly-as the offspring of the goat' and ewe-the goldfinch and canary bird-the cygnoides (Chinese goose) and the common goose, &c. &c.” p. 32.

In regard to the last case we are not alone in the opinion that these birds are only varieties of the same species, and their offspring "do propagate perfectly." In regard to the first we are wholly ignorant, and suspect some mistake. In the second case the hybrids may have occasionally propagated, but it is not always so. The distinguished friend* 10 whom we have before made allusion has produced mongrel varieties from the following species, which in no case propagated, although the mule birds, with one exceptions mated with kindred species and laid eggs: Muscovy and English duck; Guinea fowl and common hen; pea-hen and common fowl; summer drake (anas sponsa) and muşcovy duck; European and American turtle doves; linnet and Canary bird ; goldfinch and Canary; goldfinch and American do. (Fringilla tristis ;) goldfinch and fringilla cyris. He also saw in the zoological gardens of London a mongrel produced from an East Indian species of duck which was prolific for one generation, but no farther.

Dr. Nott has given a correct account of the general laws

*Dr. Bachman of Charleston, well known for his skill in natural science,

+ This was the product of the pea-hen and common fowl, which usually associated with the ducks and never seemed to have found out the link in the great chain to which he belonged.

in relation to hybrids ; as, first, that they do not ordinarily propagate; and, second, when they do propagate, that the offspring in a few generations revert to one or other of the original species. These two rules prevail in both the ani. mal and vegetable kingdoms, the first having just about exceptions enough to establish it as a law. If then the Mullatio is a hybrid, he must be an exception to the first rule. Accordingly it will be necessary for our author to show, that the Negro aud Caucasian are distinct species before he can prove that the mulatto is an exception, because the presumption from prolificacy is, that he is not a hybrid. For how stands the question ? Dr. N. is attempting to prove two or more species in the human race, and for this purpose, endeavors to show that the Mulattoes are hybrids Yet he is met at the very oulset by the fact, that they are not subject to the primary law of hybrids, and consequently, if hybrids, forming an exception to the general rule. Since then the Mulatto swerves from the great law of hybrids and forms an anomaly, how can he be proved to be a hybrid, but by the previous determination of specific distinction in the parent stock ?

The subjection of the Mulatto to the second rule may be conceded, but it can aid us none in the settlement of the question, until proved to be peculiar to hybrids. For if, as we believe, it is also applicable to the offspring of varieties, it can offer no presumption of hybridism.

The author has employed two other facts on this subject, which he assumes to be laws; viz.: that the hybrid "derives its size and internal structure principally from the mother;" and that "in hybrids the head resembles the father.” We are unable to perceive how these laws, granting them to be strictly true and uniform, and applicable only to hybrids, are fulfilled in the Mulattoes. We are not aware that “in size and internal structure,” they take more after the mother than the father; nor that their "heads resemble the father very particularly. We suppose, that no more can be predicated of the offspring of Jifferent races of men, than that they partake of the characters, physical and intellectual, of both parents, and are intermediate between the two. This result obtains equally in the offspring of parents of the same

But the author's argumentation is employed principally upon a “new fact” in this discussion, viz. : that the Mulatio

race.

is a short lived race. It matters not to the question, whether this be true or not. It is singular if true, and the evidence is pretty strong, but it belongs to a department of Physiol. ogy, which can have no important bearing upon the "ques. tion of hybrids.” If it attaches to the Mulatto as a hybrid, then the same result must be looked for in the offspring of other crosses, not only in the human race, but among the inferior animals. But we know not the facts to warrant the assertion of such a general law. We have never heard that the mule was shorter lived than its parents.

"I believe," says the writer, "hat if a hundred white men and one hundred black women were put together on an island, and cut off from all in rcourse with the rest of the world, they would in time become extinct." p. 34.

I presume that our author would not assume one law for the Mulatto, another for the Mestizo, etc., and we must therefore take it for granted, that if the offspring of any two human races would run out, such would be the case in all. But the population of Pitcairn's Island, wbich was setstled in 1790, by English sailors and Tahitian women, reg. ularly increased up to 1840, the last date of which we bave any information. Dr. Morton says, that the modern Nubians are a mixed race of Arabs and Negroes, but we know not that they give any signs of extinction. Dr. Noit him. self, speaks of the mixture of races in Africa and other parts of the world, as having been going on “from time immemorial;” (p. 34.) he says, “there are good grounds for believing that the varieties of men seen in any particular country, and the physical approximation seen in different tribes, originate in the mingling of different races ; (p. 40.) that "Egypt and the Barbary States” were once "occupied by Caucasian colonies, and now by their mixed descendants ;" that "Carthage... was a Caucasian colony from Asia,".... but "her people have been conquered and adulterated in blood by African hordes ;" (pp. 35-6.) and that it is reasonable to suppose, that there is not at present a single unmixed race on the face of the earth.” (p, 28.) Surely his own facts do not warrant our author's conclusion, that "defective in. ternal organization which leads to ultimate destruction, exists in the Mulatto," and "they would in time become extinct."

The “Moral and Intellectual" division of the argument,

we have not space or inclination to discuss. The "facts" under this head, are rather contingent than essential to the question, and cannot afford even a presumption of specific distinction. We should however be obliged to dissent from much of our author's argument, were we to consider it, for some statements do not seem correct, and his inferences are loose and remote. Much opposing testimony could also be furnished.

The last topic is the "Affinity of Languages," and is a highly important branch of the argument for the unity of the human race. Dr. N. has passed it by with only a casual though specious objection. The "facts” on this subject are too numerous and stubborn to be set aside by a conjecture. Such men as Klaproth, Abel-Remusat, Adelung, Me. rian, the Schlegels, Humboldt and Herder, cannot be driven from their broad and stable ground by the breath of a supposition. We have not space for an intelligible outline of this subject, and must refer the reader to the general conclusions of some of these authors, which we have given in our remarks upon Wiseman's first two Lectures.

In our review of these Lectures, we have endeavored to do the author no injustice. We have used occasional expressions of severity, but we considered it due to truth and science, that such a publication should not pass without merited rebuke. On perusing the pamphlet, we came to the conclusion that the writer was a young man, too eager for taking rank among savans to wait for a due digestion of his varied reading, too impatient for the slow toil of laying deep and sure the foundations of an impregnable reputation. The fame of his present essay will rest upon other ground than success.

"Major deceptæ fama est et gloria dextræ.

Si non errasset, fecerat illa minus." Martial. One word upon his motto and we have done. It contains a sophism worthy of Voltaire or Rousseau, in the confounding of the faculty and the acts of reason. We marvel that any man should adopt it who recognizes, (and who can fail to recognize ?) the continual perversion of reason by mankind, and thus attribute to the Deity all the operations of the human reason. If one should say,-"My tongue being the work of God, it is the voice of heaven which speaks by it, and it must be listened to ;" he would speak as much

truth and no more blasphemy, than in the utterance of the other. We would recommend the following as far more modest and infinitely more truthful. Si l'imagination ou l'ignorance n'avoient pas tant de fois séduit la raison, la somme de nos connoisances seroit infiniment plus grande ou celle de nos erreurs infiniment moindre.

C.

ART. VI.-THE JUDICIAL TENURE. The proposed alter

ation of "the Judicial Tenurein South-Carolina. Dis. cussed by The BLACK SLUGGARD.” Hamburg. 1844.

pp. 30.

This controversy is at end. We trust no daring spirit will again be found to disturb the quiescence into which it has settled. When party feeling mingles with a question, it at once assumes a new aspect,-it at once derives an undue importance,-a wrong position. The Colossus stands where the pigmy would have otherwise hardly shown itself. The last of all questions which should be involved in the meshes of politics, is that of the Judiciary. Unless an innovation upon this branch of the government be all-important, in heaven's name let the Judiciary alone. The people have decided upon this step. We shall see how long that decision is to be maintained.

A word or two, however, from us, may not be altogether out of season. We may think upon a question, although we may not act. Let us indulge a few reflections here. We have before us a publication of rather quaint and eccentric character. Learning, originality and oddity, go hand in hand in it together. The combined force of the whole has been found irresistible. To use the caption of one of the chapters, “The effect was tremendous,—the Bastion was restored." The production has been attributed to one of our ablest lawyers. The bench, the bar and the public will acknowledge their indebtedness. It attacked the proposed innovation, and beat it down with a tempest of blows. The monster must indeed be hydra-headed to appear again.

But what is this great question of the Judiciary? The reasons they tell us for changing the "tenure," are, that the incumbents almost universally, at the period of sixty-five

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