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apparently projecting incisors, although they do not swerve from the plane of the face more than in those whose teeth are vertical. We have however, seen more projecting incisors in white individuals than we have seen in black.

The other points of difference are as valueless as this of the teeth, and similar ones will readily occur to the reader in the varieties of domesticated animals. We shall not discuss them all therefore. We will however mention, that the Hindoos have the same disproportioned arm that is attributed, without its being any thing like a universal fact, to the Negro. As to the resemblance which "Anatomists have established between the Negro and the Ape," we can mention three times as many "points of resemblance" between the Caucasian and the Ourang Outang. We hardly know what Dr. N. would imply by this. Would he have us infer that there is only a specific difference between the Negro and Ape? If he acknowledges a generic difference, of what avail are these "points of resemblance"? Does he not know, that there are many such points which anatomists have established between man and the brute?

The size of the head and brain are equally insufficient for specific character, as well as the thickness of the bones of the head. Ulloa says, that skulls of the Indians, taken from their burying grounds, are six to seven lines thick. Our author remarks,-"The head of the Negro is smaller by a tenth" than that of the Caucasian. (p. 23.) And,—“It is settled by Naturalists, that the brain of the Negro, when compared with the Caucasian, is smaller by a tenth, and is particularly defective in the anterior or intellectual lobes, and that the intellect is wanting in the same proportion;" (p. 33.) i. e. we suppose, the Negro is one tenth less intellectual than the Caucasian.

The following extract from Dunglison, will require us to make some qualification of our author's statement, though as far as the argument is concerned, we are willing to concede the whole.

"It has been the general belief, that the brain of the Negro is inferior to that of the white varieties of the species: but recent observations of M. Tiedemann lead him to the belief, that there is no perceptible difference, either in the average weight or average size of the brain in the two varieties, and that the nerves compared with the size of the brain, are not larger in the former than in the latter. In the external form of the brain of the Negro, a very slight difference only can be traced; but according to M. Tiedeman, there is absoVOL. VII.--NO. 14.

33

lutely no difference in its external structure, nor does the negro brain exhibit any greater resemblance to the Ourang Outang, than the brain of the European, excepting perhaps in the more symmetrical dispositions of its convolutions. Tiedeman's observations were made, however, upon very few subjects, and his own facts do not bear out all his deductions. He admits, that the anterior part of the hemisphere was something narrower than is usually the case in Europeans."... He "established the fact, that the average capacity of the Ethiopian skull is somewhat less than that of the European, and that a large size is considerably less common among them, than among other races of mankind." (Physiology. I. 293, 4. 4th edition.)

Notwithstanding the "very few subjects" observed by Tiedemann, we have nevertheless the important conclusion to derive from his observations, that it cannot be predicated universally of the Ethiopian brain, that it is inferior in weight and size to that of the Ethiopian. Sömmering estimates the encephelon of an adult, "at from 2 lbs. 3 oz. to 3 lbs. 3 oz.; Tiedemann at from 3 lbs. 3 oz. to 4 lbs. 11 oz. troy." "The average weight after the meninges have been stripped off, is, in the healthy adult male, according to Lelut, about 3 lbs. avoirdupois." Oliver says, "between 3 and 4 lbs." In a Lecture on the brain, which we heard from a physician in Boston, the average weight was given at 3 lbs. That of Spurzheim, he said, weighed 3 lbs. 7 oz., and was unusually large; that of Teller, who murdered a keeper in the Connecticut Penitentiary, 3 lbs., "but was unfortu nately in the wrong place."

Now what can be determined from this variety of estimates of the weight of the brain in the Caucasian race, varying from 2 lbs. 3 oz. to 4 lbs. 11 oz.; when, as we may infer from Tiedemann, that of the Ethiopian sometimes reaches above the average of the European, and we also have the Mongolian, American and Malay races, with their numerous varieties, intermediate between these two. Dr. Morton also assures us, that "the internal capacity" of the cranium "is nearly the same in the Hindoo and Peruvian." It is readily granted the average size and weight are less in the Ethiopian than in European, but so long as cases are frequently found in the former race, which attain and overreach the average of the latter, we must conclude that the former are susceptible of change, and that their inferiority

* Dunglison's Physiology. I. 292.

+ Physiology, p. 102.

Boston Journal of Natural History, vol. iv. 222.

may be, and probably is, the effect of degradation. Dr. N. states in a note, that "the best specimens of Negroes are very like the inferior of the Caucasian." (p. 24.) It seems to us, that he ought to have been staggered by the fact, since it is not an isolated or rare one, but cases of approximation, and even of overlapping, are numerous. We frequently find unmixed Negroes in this country, whose heads are not only "very like the inferior of the Caucasian," but very superior to them in development, and proportionably more intelligent. Who has failed to observe, that our blacks belonging to families, which have been house-servants for a few generations, have much better heads, often approximating very closely to good specimens of the Caucasian, than those who have been bred in the field and debarred from much association with intelligent whites? We regard this as an important and commanding fact, and an additional proof of change of form.

Our author tells us in another note, that "no one (?) doubts that...the general facts (principles ?) of Phrenology are true." (p. 23.) Now it is one of these "general facts," that the development of the brain, and so of the anterior portion of the head, is in proportion to the strength and activity of the intellectual faculties. By this rule then, we may perceive the reason of the smaller size of the Negro's brain and head in the intellectual region, and may infer that with suitable culture for a few generations, it would gradually expand to the more intellectual form and size of the common Caucasian. The argument does not require, that he should reach the standard of "Cuvier and Dupuytren," for how few comparatively of the Whites do that, but that they should so change as to come up to the general average of the Caucasian form. The conditions of the question demand no more than this.

Dr. N. here mentions again, that the difference between some species of animals is not more marked, than in the varieties of mankind, and cites the cases of "the wolf, dog and hyena, or tiger and panther." We have already discussed this subject, and shall only mention that the hyena is a different genus from the dog or wolf, and even falls into a distinct group, so that there must be a greater essential difference between them, than between the races of men, which at least can have but a specific difference. He forgets, that the differences among these animals may be per

manent and constant, and unaffected by intermediate forms which would lessen the probability of their distinctness. The wolf and dog we already intimated, are not improbably one species.

We next come to the "Question of Hybrids." Our author remarks, "There are a great variety of hybrids, running through the whole chain of animated nature, in both animal and vegetable kingdoms." If he means by this that hybrids are common in the wild state, the statement is not correct. Hybrid plants are rarely met with in nature, and among animals we can now recal but the single instance of the wood grouse and the female of the black cock in the mountains of Bohemia, which was but a casual thing, and the offspring were infertile.

"Some (most ?) hybrids do not breed-as the mule for example. There are rare instances of their having propagated when crossed back on one of the parent stocks. There are other hybrids which do propagate perfectly-as the offspring of the goat and ewe-the goldfinch and canary bird-the cygnoides (Chinese goose) and the common goose, &c. &c." p. 32.

In regard to the last case we are not alone in the opinion that these birds are only varieties of the same species, and their offspring "do propagate perfectly." In regard to the first we are wholly ignorant, and suspect some mistake. In the second case the hybrids may have occasionally propagated, but it is not always so. The distinguished friend* to whom we have before made allusion has produced mongrel varieties from the following species, which in no case propagated, although the mule birds, with one exception†_mated with kindred species and laid eggs: Muscovy and English duck; Guinea fowl and common hen; pea-hen and common fowl; summer drake (anas sponsa) and muscovy duck; European and American turtle doves; linnet and Canary bird; goldfinch and Canary; goldfinch and American do. (Fringilla tristis ;) goldfinch and fringilla cyris. He also saw in the zoological gardens of London a mongrel produced from an East Indian species of duck which was prolific for one generation, but no farther.

Dr. Nott has given a correct account of the general laws

*Dr. Bachman of Charleston, well known for his skill in natural science, +This was the product of the pea-hen and common fowl, which usually associated with the ducks and never seemed to have found out the link in the great chain to which he belonged.

in relation to hybrids; as, first, that they do not ordinarily propagate; and, second, when they do propagate, that the offspring in a few generations revert to one or other of the original species. These two rules prevail in both the animal and vegetable kingdoms, the first having just about exceptions enough to establish it as a law. If then the Mullatto is a hybrid, he must be an exception to the first rule. Accordingly it will be necessary for our author to show, that the Negro aud Caucasian are distinct species before he can prove that the mulatto is an exception, because the presumption from prolificacy is, that he is not a hybrid. For how stands the question? Dr. N. is attempting to prove two or more species in the human race, and for this purpose, endeavors to show that the Mulattoes are hybrids. Yet he is met at the very outset by the fact, that they are not subject to the primary law of hybrids, and consequently, if hybrids, forming an exception to the general rule. Since then the Mulatto swerves from the great law of hybrids and forms an anomaly, how can he be proved to be a hybrid, but by the previous determination of specific distinction in the parent stock?

The subjection of the Mulatto to the second rule may be conceded, but it can aid us none in the settlement of the question, until proved to be peculiar to hybrids. For if, as we believe, it is also applicable to the offspring of varieties, it can offer no presumption of hybridism.

The author has employed two other facts on this subject, which he assumes to be laws; viz.: that the hybrid "derives its size and internal structure principally from the mother;" and that "in hybrids the head resembles the father." We are unable to perceive how these laws, granting them to be strictly true and uniform, and applicable only to hybrids, are fulfilled in the Mulattoes. We are not aware that "in size and internal structure," they take more after the mother than the father; nor that their "heads resemble the father very particularly. We suppose, that no more can be predicated of the offspring of different races of men, than that they partake of the characters, physical and intellectual, of both parents, and are intermediate between the two. This result obtains equally in the offspring of parents of the same

race.

But the author's argumentation is employed principally upon a "new fact" in this discussion, viz.: that the Mulatto

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