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8.- History of Marion, Sketches of Life, etc., in Perry County, Alabama.


This is a work of local attraction, and will be read no doubt with great interest, by those interested in the section of country about which it is conversant. The general reader will find, however, many lively and spirited sketches of life and manners in the earlier time and in the wild border country, which cannot fail to afford amusement. Much humour is displayed in the production, and an enumeration of what otherwise would be considered as dry facts, is frequently made to assume the garb and semblance of romance.

9.- The Carolina Planter; a Monthly Register for the State and Local

Societies. Columbia.
The Southern Agriculturist, Horticulturist, and Register of Rural

Affairs; adapted to the Southern section of the United States, Dec.

1844. . A. E. Miller, Charleston. The interests of Agriculture are coming to be more regarded in our State. We must not be agriculturists merely in name, and the support of works of this kind ought to be specially attended to; and strange as it may appear, the projectors of these before us are complaining of a want of patronage. Let the agriculturists look to it.

10.Southern Literary Messenger. B. B. Minor, Editor and Proprietor.

Dec. 1844. Richmond, Va. We receive, as usual, our numbers of this sprightly and well conducted periodical, and are always willing to give it a warm welcome and God.speed in the sunny fields of Southern literature.

11.-Floral Wreath and Ladies Monthly Magazine, Dec. 1844. EDWIN

HERIOT, Editor. Charleston: B. Jenkins. MR. HERIOT is a young man, and seems to possess the requisites for a work of this kind. He has succeeded, thus far, in giving it an interest with the class of readers for which it is intended. We wish him success. Southern periodicals of this kind are said to be ephemeral. They are born, live and die in an hour. And why is this? Is it fair that the reproach should exist, when there are so many means of preventing it ?

12.- Editorial Notes.

1.-E. B. Bellinger, Esq., of Barnwell, has taken exception to part of the cle on “Education in Europe”—the first in this number. He complains of the language used in connexion with his name (pp. 56-57).

The language, however, is not personal. It looks to the policy and not to the individual advocating it. We did not hold Mr. B. responsible for the policy-he was the original advocate of it, to be sure, in the case alluded to, and it was unnecessary to go beyond him ; but then he was sustained and sanctioned by the authority of the “very respectable committee who adopted and recommended the reports of the Commissioners.” That committee were Stephen Elliott, Jr. and J. H. Thornwell. We had no motive in keeping back their names—however high and weighty they may be. We are at issue with Mr. Bellinger, committee and all. We have no qualifying language ; and however much we regret this issue with such high authority, and on so important a question, it only proves the tendency to error on the subject we were discussing, and the necessity for a more general understanding of it. We open our work to the discussion.

Mr. B. corrects another error. On p. 56, we make him give $40 to each poor

scholar ; whereas on comparing other passages of his report, he says $10, would be more correct. This is of little consequence.

II. The subject of Education, has engrossed a large portion of this number. All admit its importance-we do not apologise. Apropos to the first article, is a movement in the 2d Municipality of New Orleans ; a movement in the right direction and in the proper spirit. A circular has been lately sent us, which although we cannot publish, we condense in a note. The Municipality have, by an ordinance, established “A Lyceum Library for the public schools.” This is to be effected, for the most part, by the efforts of the scholars, in small monthly subscriptions, which constitute them life members. Annual subscriptions from other sources may be received, and also donations. When $5,000 are raised, the directors shall invest in books. When $15,000, the Municipality are to build a hall in a central position. Aster $10,000 are invested in books, philosophical aparatus, etc., will be purchased ; and lecturers provided, during part of the year, on the natural sciences. This is sufficiently munificent.

III. We have given the initials of some of our writers, in this number, by permission; the others, we had not a chance to consult. We do not bind ourselves, always to give these, but would like our contributors to give us the power, to do it or not at our pleasure. We are always willing to give the authors of our articles, when called upon to do so. This is always understood, unless the contrary be desired. The reader, in general, must be satisfied with an initial letter in the work, which will give him a clue.

IV. We have on hand several interesting articles, excluded from this number from want of space; and in commencing our fourth year, cannot but congratulate ourselves on the success, with which, the work has been attended.


No. XIV.


A PRIL, 1845.

Art. 1.-1. The History of Etruria. Tarchun and his

Times. From the Foundation of Tarquinia to the
Foundation of Rome. By Mrs. HAMILTON GRAY.
London. J. Hatchard & Son. 187 Piccadilly. 1843..

1 vol. 12mo.
2. The History of Rome. By B. G. NIEBUHR. Trans-

lated by JULIUS CHARLES HARE, M. A., and CONNOP THIRLWALL, M. A., Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. Volume First, with a Map. From the Third London Edition Revised. Philadelphia : Lea & Blanch

ard. 1844. 1 vol. 8 vo. 3. Histoire Romaine. Premiere Partie République. Par

M. DE MICHELET, Membre d l'Institut, Professeur d'Histoire au Collége Royal de France, &c. Bruxelles. Meline, Caus et Compagnie. 1840.

On the Western coast of that long Peninsula which stretches from Europe towards Africa, and seems to form, with the interjacent Isles, the connecting link between the two continents, lies an extensive plain, reaching from Pisa to Terracina, and including the most illustrious, if not the fairest regions of Italy. Its Northern portion belonged to the especial domain of the ancient Etruscans; and towards the South lay the celebrated Campagna di Roma, constituting a plateau elevated between one and two hundred feet above the level of the sea, and situated nearly in the middle of the great Chersonnese. The vast chain of the Apennines encloses this basin within its arms, and forms the som18

VOL. VII.--NO. 14.

bre back-ground of the picture: while the stagnant Arno, with its marshy borders, limits it on the North, and the dark crater of Vesuvius, on the South, is interposed between it and the adjoining territory of Naples. Within this narrow theatre arose two of the most important and interesting nations of antiquity--the Etruscans and the Romans—the consideration of whose origin and earlier history, will form the principal subject of the present article.

The two streams of the Tevere and the Teverone-the Tiber and the Anio-rising amid the spurs of the Appennine, traverse the region of which we have spoken; and, after mingling their waters a little below that Sacred Hill, so celebrated in Roman History, flow with a languid, though united, current; till lost near Ostia in the waves of the Tus. can Sea. At a distance of three miles from their confluence, the Tiber winds its sinnvous course through a succession of low and irregular hills, apparently thrown up from the plain by the action of volcanic fire; and on these, some small colonies established themselves in the night of ages, and lived nearly unheard of, and almost undiscoverable to the scrutiny of modern research, until the period when they had swelled by consolidation and successive accretions, into a considerable power, and unfurled to the winds, the blood-stained standard of Rome.

The site, on which the City arose, was singularly, and, perhaps, felicitously selected—though it is probable, that we ought to attribute its adoption rather to accident and circumstance, than to judgment or design. Napoleon, in his exile, dreamed that the time-honoured Queen of the Seven Hills might yet become the centre and the capital of a modern kingdom of United Italy—and certainly, notwithstanding its numerous and obvious disadvantages, it was favourably situated for the purposes of gradual, but continued and expanding conquest, though it must soon have been crushed by the hostile states around, had it been occupied in its youth by a people of less persevering energy and indomitable courage than the ancient Romans.

Livy speaks in rapturous terms of the salubrious atmosphere of the Roman Hills—the convenience of the River Tiber—the fortunate proximity to the Sea, of the City, sufficiently near for the purposes of profitable commerce, without being so close as to permit the apprehension of sudden danger from maritime invasion-and he winds up his elo

quent description by characterizing that focus of Italy as a spot singularly adapted for the growth of a great city.

But the glowing praise of Livy might be the mere declamation of a Roman, and a professed rhetorician ; certain it is, that neither the scattered testimonies to be gleaned from his own beautiful history, nor the observation of modern travellers will confirm, in its full extent, the commendation thus lavished upon Rome. In ancient times, the city and its vicinity were as unhealthy in the summer months as the most pestilential regions of our Southern States, and the deadly breath of the sirocco was as pernicious then as it is now. True it is, that the desolation of the surrounding Campagna, the filth and rottenness of the modern Rome, may have developed, despite the efforts of Sixtus V., the seeds of disease, to a greater extent than formerly, but they were always existent there, and the atmosphere of Rome was never a healthy one. The shallow waters of the Tiber, with its obstructed harbour, were such as scarcely to permit that commerce, which the laws failed to encourage, and the people regarded as degrading. And the space intervening between themselves and the sea, was not sufficient to protect the citizens from the dread of an unexpected descent upon their coasts, and even upon their city, by the Etruscans, the Carthaginians, or the fleets of Sextus Pompeius. Modern history may show how insecure the Romans were on the side of the sea. A traveller, and a German, whose name is among the most distinguished ornaments of the nineteenth century, and who has formed an era in the literary history of his own country, (Goëthe,) speaks, with the deepest feeling of personal experience, of the dull fogs of the Tiber, the solemn gloom of the Roman hills, and conceives that no people were ever more unfortunate in the location of their metropolis than the conquerors of the world.

And yet, notwithstanding the eternal sadness that breathes over the mighty Queen of Nations, she must have presented a spectacle of most imposing splendour in the days of her greatness and glory. The mind of the greatest of all historians, was kindled into fire, as he sat upon the shattered columns of the capitol: and to the heart, which is sensitive to such influences, there is still much of moral grandeur and impressive awe in the midst of the Roman ruins,-marred, as is their effect, by the juxtaposition of tawdry palaces, wretched hovels, and modern Vandalism. We may yet

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