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EXPLANATION

Of the characters made use of in this work.

144

- The sign of equality; as 4 qrs. = 1 yard, signifies that

4 quarters are equal to one yard.
Minus, or less: the sign of subtraction; as 8–2=6, that

is, 8 lessened by 2 is equal to 6. + Plus or more: the sign of addition; as 4+3=7, that is,

4 added to 3 is equal to 7. x Multiplied by: the sign of multiplication ; as 7x4=28,

that is, 7 multiplied by 4 is equal to 28. Divided by: the sign of division; as 6+2=3, that is, 6

divided by 2 is equal to 3. 72. Numbers placed like a fraction do also denote division;

the upper number being the dividend, and the lower the

divisor. :: So is; the sign of proportion; as 3:6 :: 2:4, that is, as

3 is to 6 so is 2 to 4. 8-2+5=11, shows that the difference between 8 and 2

added to 5, is equal to 11. 8–2+5=1, shows that the sum of 2 and 5 taken from 8, is

equal to 1. ✓ Prefixed to any number, signifies that the square root of

that number is required.

Signifies that the cube root is required. The letters composing the words “my big horse," will in many places be substituted for figures. It will be easy to conceive each letter a figure, thus :

b i h
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

му

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ARITHMETIC is that part of the mathematics which treats of numbers, and teaches how to apply them to useful purposes. It has five principal rules, on which all its operations depend, viz: Notation or Numeration, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division.

NUMERATION Teaches the different value of figures by their different places, and to read and write any sum or number with the ten Arabic characters, called figures, or digits, viz: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0.

All numbers may be expressed by these figures.

THE TABLE.

Hundreds of millions.

Tens of millions.
CO A Hundreds of thousands.
co co Millions.
oor Tens of thousands.
er a Thousands.

» Hundreds.
0 Tens.

Units.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9, 123 millions, 456 thousand, 789.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8, 12 millions, 345 thousand, 678.
9 1 2 3 4 5 6, 9 millions, 123 thousand, 456.
7 8 9 1 2 3, 789 thousand, 123.
4 5 6 7 8, 45 thousand, 678.
9 1 2 3, 9 thousand, 123.
4 5 6, four hundred and fifty-six.
78, seventy-eight. .

9, nine. The reading of numbers may be greatly facilitated, by dividing them into periods of three figures each; thus,

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123,456,789, reads one hundred and twenty-three millions, four hundred and fifty-six thousand, seven hundred and eighty-nine.

Application.
Write down in proper figures the following numbers:
Nine,
Fifty-six,

gh. Eight hundred and forty-three,

rib. Three hundred and five,

beg. Six hundred and forty-one,

him. Nine hundred and forty-eight,

sir. Three hundred,

bee. Three hundred and seventy-two,

boy. Nine thousand six hundred and seventy,

shoe. Eight thousand seven hundred and ninety, Nine thousand seven hundred and ten, Fifty-seven thousand seven hundred and ninety, goose. Nine hundred and sixty-two thousand, three hundred and seventy-two,

shyboy. Five hundred and seventy-seven millions, nine hun

dred thousand, five hundred and fifty-nine, gooseeggs. Forty-eight millions, four hundred and ninety-six thou

sand, three hundred and seventy-two, irishboy. One million, two hundred and sixty-seven thousand, eight hundred and ninety,

myhorse. The following table, extending to nonillions, may sometimes be useful : Nonillions, Octillions, Septillions, Sextillions, Quintillions, 628974,

587629, 719548, 327647, 591792, Quadrillions, Trillions, Billions, Millions, Units. 514268, 438276, 951476, 679284, 151417.

NOTATION BY ROMAN LETTERS.
I. One.

XI. Eleven.
II. Two.

XII. Twelve.
III. Three.

XIII. Thirteen.
IV. Four.

XIV. Fourteen.
V. Five.

XV. Fifteen.
VI. Six.

XVI. Sixteen.
VII. Seven.

XVII. Seventeen.
VIII. Eight.

XVIII. Eighteen.
IX. Nine.

XIX. Nineteen.
X. Ten.

XX. Twenty.

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