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The second difficulty lies in distinguishing a pressure group from a political party.
... The reverse process can also occur, as when a political party engenders
pressure groups; thus, the Communist parties in France and Italy have set up
(In the U.S., lobbying is conducted not only by private interest groups but also by
certain members of the executive branch and the bureaucracy.)
Semiconstitutional operations include subvention or payment of retainers as well
as providing ...
Interest groups secure contacts by putting former civil servants on their own
payrolls. ... channels of communication, is open to ad hoc and personal
consultations (except to groups deemed ideologically distasteful, such as the
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This is the 198215th Edition, in two halves, with the Macropaedia and the Micropaedia. First published in 1768, the publisher is the oldest English-language encyclopedia still in print. Two Scottish ... Read full review