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1800, and has been supported entirely by prirate bounty. In
I SSI A had a president, 4 professors, 2 tutors, and 92 students.
II has a library of more than 1,200 volumes and a valuable philosophical apparatus.—The University of Vermont, at Burlington, was incorporated in 1791, and has been liberally patronized, by Ihe ?t .te. The funds consist principally of lands, amounting to about 40,000 acres, and yield at present an income of about 1,200 dollars. The number of students in 1818 was 28.
The American literary, scientific and military academy, was established in I82U at Norwich on Connecticut river, 21 miles north of Windsor. It Is under the superintendence of Capt. Aldcn Partridge, and has6 professors, and 117 students or cadets. The students are required to wear a uniform dress, and to go through a regular system of military exerci-es, besides the usual course of studies pursued at other literary institutions.
Population and Religion] The population in 1790 was 86.689; in 1800, 154,465; in 1810, 217,895; and in 1820, 836,70-1; having nearly trebled in 30 years. About half the population in 1820 was in the four southern counties; the northern part of the state is thioly settled. Vermont has been settled entirely from the other states of New.England, and tbe inhabitants have of course the New-England character. The Congre•rationalists and Baptists are the prevailing denominations of Christians.
Government.] The legislative power is vested in a house of representatives, chosen annually by the different towns, each town being entitled to one representative. The executive power is vested in a governor, lieutenant governor and twelve counsellors, chosen annually by general ballot. The constitution provides also for the election of a council of censors, to consist of 13 persons, chosen by tbe people once in seven years. They hold their office for the space of one year, and it is their business to inquire whether the constitution bos been preserved inviolate, during the seven years immediately preceding their appointment, and whether the legislative and executive branches of the government have performed their duty. Every person, of 31 years of age, having resided in the state one year, is entitled to vote at all elections of state officers.
Commerce-] The principal exports are pot and pearl ashes, lumber, beef, pork, butter, cheese, flax, &c. The market* to which the people of this state principally resort are Quebec, Montreal, Troy, Albany, New-York, Hartford and Boston. To (Quebec tbey send large quantities of lumber by lake C'liamplain and tbe river Sorelle. With Montreal they trade for fur«, peltry, and some foreign commodities. On the western side of the mountains they derive most of their foreign goods from Troy, Albany and New-York. Fatted cattle they drive to New-York and Boston Horses they sell at New-Haven and Hartford for the W«-«t Indian market. On Connecticut river. Iuml>er and other produce is transported to Hartford; anil foreign rummodilies of various kinds are ii»!»en in return. Most parts of tbe state, also, csrrv on considerable trade with Boston.
Situation and Ertent.] Massachusetts is bounded N. by Vermont and New-Hampshire; E. by the Atlantic; S. by Rhode-Island and Connecticut; and W. by New-York. Its length on the northern line is 130 miles; its breadth at the western extremity is 50 miles. It extends from 41° 23' to 43° 52' N. lat. and from 69° 50' to 73° 10' W. lon. The area is estimated at 7,250 square miles.
Divisions.] The state is divided into 14 counties and 300 towns.
Counties. Towns. Pop.in 1810, Pop, in 1820. Chief towns. 1. Essex, 26 71,888 74,625 Salem, Newburyport. 2. Middlesex, 44 52,789 61.472 Charlestown,Cambridge. 3. Suffolk, 2 34,381 43,940 Boston. 4. Norfolk, 22 31.245 36,471 Dedham. 5. Plymouth, 18 35, 169 38,136 Plvmouth. 6. Barnstable, 14 22.211 24,026 Barnstable. 7. Bristol, 19 37,168 40,908 Taunton. 8. Worcester, 54 64,910 73.625 Worcester. 9. Franklin, 25 27,301 29,268 Greenfield. 10. Hampshire, 22 24,553 26,487 Northampton.
. Hampden, 18 24,421 38,021 Springfield. . Berkshire, 32 35,907 35,720 Lenox. 13. Duke's, 3 3,200 3.292 Edgarton. . Nantucket, 1 6,807 7,266 Nantucket.
Total, 300 472,010 523,297
The seven first named counties horder on the sea-coast. Worcester county is in the centre of the state and extends through its whole breadth from Rhode-Island to New-Hampshire. Franklin, Hampshire and Hampden are on Connecticut river. Berkshire is the most western county, and borders on Vermont. New-York and Connecticut. Duke's county embraces Martha’s Vineyard and the Elizabeth islands. Nantucket consists of the island of Nantucket.
Peninsula.] The county of Barnstable is a peninsula, commonly called the peninsula of cape Cod. Its shape is that of a man's artn luent in wards, both at the ellow and wrist. A great part of this peninsula is sandy and barren, and in many places, wholly destitute of vegetation; yet it is populous. The inhabitants obtain their support almost entirely from the ocean ; the men being constantly employed at sea ; and the boys, at a very early age, are put on board the fishing boats. In consequence of the violent east winds, it is supposed that the cape is gradually wearing away.
F.xvs and Capes.] Massachusetts bay is a large bay communicating with the Atlantic between cape Ann on the north and cape Cod on the south. It includes several smaller bays, among which are Boston bay, which sets up between Nahant point on the north, and point Alderton on the south; Plymouth bay, and Barnstable bay. Buzzard's bay is on the S. W. side of the peninsula of cape Cod, and separated from Barnstable bay by a narrow isthmus. The roost noted capes, besides cape Ann and cape Cod, are cape Malabar, at the southeast extremity of the peninsula of cape Cod ; Sandy point, at the northern extremity of the island of .Nantucket; and Gayhead, the western point of Martha's Vineyard. Face of the Country.] The surface is generally undulating, except in the southeastern counties, where it is level. The western part of the state is traversed from north to south by several ranges of mountains. The White mountain range comes from New-Hampshire, and running on the ea«t side of Connecticut river, divides a little below Northampton into the Mount Tom range and Lyme range. The Green mountain range comes from Vermont, and occupies a large part of the county of Berk* shire. The Taghkanmic range runs along the western boundary of the state. The highest summits in the Taghkannuc range are Saddle mountain, which rises near the N. W. corner of the state to the height of about 4,000 feet above the level of the sea; and Taghkannuc, which is near the S.W. corner of the state, on the borders of Connecticut and New-York,and is about 3,000 feet high. The principal summits in the Mount Tom range are Mount Tom and Mount Holyoke, both of which rise in the neighborhood of Northampton to the height of more than 1,200 feet above the level of the sea. Wachuselt is a single mountain in Princeton, J5 miles north of Worcester. The height is variously estimated from 2,000 to 3,000 feet.
Soil and Productions.] On the sea coast the land is poor, particularly in the southeastern counties which are sandy. The rest of the state has generally a good soil, producing grass, Indian corn, rye, wheat,oats and potatoes, io abundance. In no state in the Lit on have greater advances been made in agriculture than in Massachusetts. The towns around Boston are literally gardens" from which the capital is supplied with the finest fruits and vege■il.lt-*. Agricultural societies have recently been formed in various parts of the state, which promise to be of great benefit by encouraging the importation of valuable breeds of animals, and promoting every species of agricultural improvement.
Minerals.] Iron ore is found in considerable quantities in Bristol and Plymouth counties. Quarries of marble have been opened in Stockbiidge, and in other towns of Berkshire county. Great quantities of beautiful granite are found in Chelmsford and Tyngsborough, near the banks of the Middlesex canal; it is much used for building in Boston and other places.
Rivers.] Connecticut river traverses the western part of the state from north to south and passes into Conner*icut. The Jlerritnack comes from New-Hampshire, and running in a northeasterly direction about 50 miles, falh into the ocean below Newburyport. Ipswich river is a small stream, which falls into the ocean 9 miles south of the Merrimack. Charles river fall* into Boston harbor between Boston and Charlestown, after a northeasterly course of 40 miles. It is navigable to Walertown, 7 miles. A'eponset river falls into Boston harbor on the south side of the town. It is navigable for vessels of 150 tons to Milion, 4 miles. Taunton rivtr rises in Plymouth county, and after a S. W. course of 50 miles falls into Narragansett bay. It is navigable for small vessels to Taunton, 20 miles.
The principal tributaries of the Connecticut from thi« state are, Westfield rimer, which rises in the northern part of Berkshire county, and running in a S. E. direction joins it at West Springfield near the southern boundary; Deerfield river, which rises in Bennington county in Vermont, and running S. E. empties itself between Deerfield and Greenfield near the northern boundary; Millers river, which empties itself from the east side, above Deerfield river; and the Chickapee, which rises in Worcester county, and running S. W. empties itself at Springfield, above the mouth of Westfield river.
The principal tributaries of the Merrimack from this state are, (be Nashua, which rises in Worcester county and running N. E. into New-Hampshire, empties itself near the southern boundary of that state; and Concord river, which is formed by the union ot two small rivers at Concord and running N. E. empties itself 15 or 20 miles below the Nashua.
The Hooestennvc rises in the northern part of Berkshire county and flows south into Connecticut, draining the waters of the valley included between the Green mountain range on the east and the Taghkaonuc range on the west.
Canals.] Middlesex canal is wholly within the county of Mid dlesex. It connects Boston harbor with Merrimack river. It i*. supplied with water by Concord river which it crosses on its surface. From that river, southward, it descends 107 feet by IS locks, to the tidewater of Boston harbor; and from that river, northward, it descends 21 feet by 3 locks, to the level of Merrimack river. The canal is r>I mile? long, 24 feet wide on the surface, and 4 feet deep. It was commenced in 1793 and completed in 1804 at an expense of more than $700,000. By this canal and Merrimack river an easy communication is opened between Boston and the interior of New-Hampshire.
There is a canal around the falls in Connecticut river at South Hndley. In one pl»ce it if cut through the solid rock more than 40 feet deep and 300 feet in length. There are other falls in the Connecticut above and below South Hadley, which have been overcome l»y canals, dams and other improvements, so that the river is now navigable for boats through the whole of its course in this state, and as high as Bath in New-Hampshire.
A canil for sloops from Buzzard's bav to Barnstable bay through the isthmus of c ipe Cod lias long been in contemplation, and in 1818 a company was incorporated to carry the plan into
execution. The great object is to shorten the voyage between Boston and the southern ports, and to avoid the dangerous navigation around cape Cod, which has heretofore occasioned the destruction of much property and many lives. Chief Towns.] Boston, the capital of the state, and the largest town in New-England, is pleasantly situated at the bottom of Massachusetts bay, on a peninsula of an uneven surface, 2 miles long, and in the widest part about one mile wide. The harbor is one of the best in the United States. It has sufficient depth of water for the largest vessels at all times of tide, and is accessible at all seasons of the year. It is safe from every wind, and so capacious that it will allow 500 vessels to ride at anchor, while the entrance is so narrow as scarcely to admit two ships abreast. The entrance is well defended by Fort Independence and Fort Warren. There are four bridges connecting Boston with the adjacent towns. Charles river bridge, which connects it with Charlestown on the north, is 1503 feet long, 42 broad, and stands on 75 piers. West Boston bridge, connecting it with Cambridgeport on the west, is 3,483 feet long, and stands on 180 piers. Cragie's bridge is between these two, and connects it with Cambridge. A mill-dam, nearly two miles long and 50 feet wide, was completed in 1821 across the bay on the S. W. side of the city, at an expense of about $500,000. The object of it is to open a new avenue, and also to create a water power sufficient to put in operation extensive tide mills and other water works. The houses in the older part of the city are plain, and the streets generally narrow and crooked, but in West Boston and in several streets recently laid out, the private buildings are more splendid than in any other city in the United States. In 1817 there was erected on each side of Market-street, a block of brick stores more than 400 feet in length, and 4 stories high ; and on Central wharf, another immense pile of buildings was completed the same year, 1,240 feet long and containing 5 stores 4 stories high. Among the public buildings are the State house, which is built on elevated ground, and commands a fine view of the surrounding country; the new court house, built of stone, at an expense of $92,000; Faneuil hall, where all town meetings are held; a theatre; an almshouse; a custom-house; and 28 places for public worship, 11 of which are for Congregationalists, 4 for Episcopalians, 4 for Baptists, 2 for Methodists, 3 for Universaïists, 1 for Roman Catholics, 1 for Friends a new Jerusale in ehurch, and the seamen’s chapel. Among the literary institutions are the Boston Athenæum, which contains about 18,000 volumes; the Boston library, which has 3. or 6,000, and several other libraries belonging to literary societies. Among the benevolent institutions are the Gençal liospital founded in 1818, which has been richly endowed by the liberality of the state and of individuals; auda Hospital for the Insane, the buildings of which are situated in Charlestown. Boston is very extensively engaged in com a ce. There are probably few cities in the world where there is so much walth