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open a water communication between Portsmouth and the centre of the state.
Various routes have been proposed for a navigable communication from the Merrimack to the Connecticut. One plan » to unite Baker's river with the Connecticut; another, to connect the Contoocook with Sunapee lake ; and a third, to connect the Conloocook with the Ashuelot.
Chief Towns.] Porthsmovth, the largest town in the state, sliinds on the south side of Piscataqua river, about two miles from the sea. The harbor is one of the best in the United States. It is landlocked on every side, and perfectly safe, of suflicient d«pth tor the largest vessels at all times of (he tide, and, owing to the rapidity of the current, is never froeen. The main entrance is about a mile wide, and is well defended by two forts. There n an island in the inner harbor, opposite the town, on which is a United States navy yard, containing good timber docks, and all the conveniences for building ships of the largest class. Several ships of the line have been built here Portsmouth has considerable trade. In 18*5, it was the ninth town in the United States in amount of shipping, the number of tons being 30,411. The population in 1820 was 7,327
Concord, the capital of the state, is a flourishing town on the Merrimack, at the head of navigation, and well situated for trade. Much of the produce of the Upper country is brought here, and passes down the Merrimack river and Middlesex canal to Boston. Among the public buildings are a handsome state-house and stateprison, both of stone. Population, in 1820, 2,838.
Dover is 12 miles N. W. of Portsmouth. The village is at the head of the tide on Gocheco river, 4 miles above its junction with the Piscataqua. It has various mills and manufacturing establishments, and daily communication with Portsmouth by a packet. Population, in 1820, 2871. Exeter is pleasantly situated at the head of the tide on Eieter river, a branch of the Piscataqna, lq miles S. W. of Portsmouth, and about the same distance N. W. of Newhuryport in Massachusetts. It has numerous manufacturing establishments. Among the public buildings are a court-house and an academy. Population, in 1820, 2,1J 4.
Ainhertt is a tile west of the Merrimack, near the southern boundary of the state, 30 miles south of Concord. Plymouth ii on the Merrimack, at the mouth of Baker's river, 43 miles north of Concord. Kerne is a pleasant town in the southwestern part of the stale on the Ashuelot, 55 miles S. W. of Concord.
The principal towns on Connecticut river are Walpole, 13 miles N. W. of Keene; Charkstoien, 12 miles N. of Walpole; Hanover, the seat of Dartmouth college; llavtrhill, 27 miles N. of Hanover; and Hath, adjoining Haverhill, at the head of boat navigation.
Education.] Dartmouth college, at Hanover, was founded in J7H9, and received its name from the Earl ot Dartmouth, one of its earliest and most generous benefactors. In \l'2\ v had a president, 8 professors, including 3 medical professors; 2 tutors; and 230 students, including 65 medical students. It has a good chemical apparatus, a philosophical apparatus, and a valuable anatomical museum. The college library contains about 4,000 volumes, and there are 2 libraries belonging to societies of students, each of which contains nearly 2,000 volumes. The permanent funds. of the college yield about $2,000 a year. This, with the tuition, makes an annual income of about $6,000. Phillips Exeter Academy, at Exeter, was sounded by the Hon. John Phillips L. L. D. in 1781. It is one of the oldest and most flourishing academies in New-England. It has funds amounting to about $80,000; a well selected library of 700 volumes, and a handsome philosophical apparatus. Its officers are a principal, a Professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, and an assistant. The funds are appropriated in part to the support of indigent students. Union Academy, at Plainfield on Connecticut river, 42 miles N. W. of Concord, was established in 1813. It is handsomely endowed, and is intended for the gratuitous education of indigent young men preparing for the ministry, in the studies preparatory to a collegial course. Population.] The population in 1780 was 141,885; in 1800, 183,858; in 1810, 214,460; and in 1820, 244,161; having increased 74 per cent. in 30 years. The great mass of the population is in the southern half of the state. North of Winnipiseogee lake there are very few inhabitants, except on Connecticut river. Religion.] The Baptists and Congregationalists are the prevailing denominations. In 1817 the number of ordained ministers was estimated at 222, of whom 107 were Baptists, 100 Congregationalists, and 15 of other denominations, Government.] The legislative power is vested in a General court, consisting of a Senate and House of Representatives. The Senate consists of 13 members chosen annually by districts. The Representatives are chosen by the different towns; each town having 150 rateable polls sends one Representative, and every addition of 300 polls entitles it to another. The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is chosen annually by general ballot, and a council consisting of 5 members. JManufactures.] Few countries in the world are better furnished with mill-streams, and mill-seats, than New-Hampshire, and manufactories have increased very rapidly within a few years. There are now more than 30 cotton and woollen factories, many of them on an extensive scale. A glass manufactory has been recently established at Keene, and there are two cstablishments for the manufacture of iron at Franconia, on a branch of the Lower Ammonoosuck, 14 miles N. E., of Haverhill. The mine from which the iron is obtained is considered the richest in the United States, and is said to be inexhaustible, and there is a large coal within a short distance of the works. merce.] The principal exports are lumber, pot and pearl ashes, fish, beef, live cattle, pork and flax seed. The market for the northern part of the state is Portland; for the southeastern,
Portsmouth and New bury port; for the country on the Mcrrimick, Boston; for the country on the Connecticut, Hartford and Boston.
Cariosity.] Bellows falls, in Connecticut river, at Walpole, are regarded as a curiosity. The whole descent of the river in the space of 100 rods is 44 feet. There are several pitcnes, one above another, at the highest of which a large rock divides the Stream into two channels, each about 90 feet wide. When the water is low, the eastern channel is dry, being crossed by a bar of solid rock; and the whole stream falls into the western channel, where it is contracted to the breadth of 16 feet, and flows with astonishing force and rapidity. In 1792, at a time of severe drought, the water of the river, it is said, passed within a space 12 i-et wide and CV, feet deep. A bridge is built over these falls, under which the highest floods pass without detriment.
Islands ] The isles of Shoals, 8 in number, lie 11 miles S. EL of Portsmouth. A part of them belong to Maine, and a part to New-Hampshire. They consist of barren rocks and are inhabited by about 100 souls, who subsist by Ashing.
Situation and Extent.] Vermont is bounded N. by Lower Canada; E. by New-Hampshire; S. by Massachusetts ; and W. by New-Ycrk, from which it is separated in part by lake Champlaio. The northern boundary is the parallel of 45° N. lat. The §ta#e extendi from 42° 44' lo 45° N. lat. and from 71" 38' lo 73° 26 W Ion. It is 157 miles long from N. to S. 90 miles broad on the northern boundary, and 40 on the southern- The area is estimated at 10,212 square miles.
Divisions.] The state is divided into 13 counties.
The five first named counties lie from S. to N. on Connecticut river, and the five next from N. to S. on lake Champlain. Bennington is in the S. VV. corner of the slate, Washington in the centre, and Orleans on the northern boundary.
L*ikes.\ Lake Memphremagog, on the northern houndary, is partly in this state, but principally in Canada. It is 30 miles long and discharges itself through St. Francis river into the St. Lawrence. Lake Champlain, on the western houndary, is 128 miles long, from Whitehall, at its southern extremity, to its termination 24 miles north of the Canada line, and from half a mile to 1G miles broad. It discharges itself at its northern extremity through the river Sorelle into the St. Lawrence. There are several large islands in the northern part of the lake, the principal of which are North and South Hero. A battle was fought on this lake on the 11th of September lul4,in which the American fleet, under Commodore Macdonough, gained a complete victory over the British.
Riven.] The Connecticut forms the eastern boundary. The principal tributaries of the Connecticut, beginning in the south, are, 1. West river, which joins it about 10 miles from ihe southern boundary; 2. Q-ieechy, which discharges itself 10 miles above Windsor; 3. White river, which discharges itself 5 miles above the Queechv, and 4. The Pasumpsic, which rises a little S. E. of lake Memphremagog, and running south, discharges itself 15 or 20 miles above Newbury.
The principal rivers which fall into lake Champlain, beginning in the north, are, 1. Missisque river, which rises to the S. W. of lake Memphremagog, and runs into Missisque bay in the N. E. part of the lake. 2- La Moil, which rises to the south of lake Memphremagog, and running west falls into the lake 10 miles north of Burlington. 3. Onion river, which rises still farther south, and running nearly parallel with La Moil, passes by Montpelier, and discharges itself into the lake 4 miles N. W. of Burlington village. 4. Otter creek, which rises in the southwestern part of thp st.iie, and reining in a direction west of north, passes by Rutland, Middlebury and Vergennes, and discharges itself about 20 miles south of Burlington.—None of the rivers of Vermont are navigable, except for a few miles from their mouths; but they abound with valuable mill seats, especially Otter creek.
Mountains.] The Green mountains, from which the state derives its name, come from Massachusetts, and run from south to north along the east side of Bennington, Rutland and Addison counties. In Addison county they divide; the western and principal chain continues a northerly course, and terminates near the northern boundary of the state in a succession of small hills; while the height of land, as it is called, strikes off to the northea»t, dividing the waters which fall into the Connecticut from those which fall into lake Memphremagog and lake Champlain. The western range presents much .the loftiest summits, but has openings which afford a passage for Onion and La Moil river*.'
The highest summits of the Green mountains are Killinr'em peak, a feiv mileH east of Kuiland; Camel's Rump, about bnif way between Montpelier and Burlington, and Mansfield mountain, a few miles farther north, all of which are more than 3.600 I'ret above the levol of the sea. Ascumey, a single mountain 5 rniies 5. S. W. of Windsor, is 3,320 feel above the sea.
Face of the Country, Soil, <$«<;.] The country on each side of the Green mountains consists of hills, rallies and pinion. The plains are of moderate extent, the surface bein? almost everywhere undulating. The soil is generally rich, and yield- abundantly wheat, barley, rye, grass, Indian corn, oats, peas, fl*x, k.c Much of the land on the Green mountains in the northern part of the state is excellent for grazing.
Chief Town*.] Momtfeuer, the capital, is on Onion river, near the centre of the state, at the point of intersection of several principal roads. Population, in 1810, 1,877.—Newbury «a pleasant town on Connecticut river, opposite Haverhill in NewHampshire, and 34 miles E. S. E. of Montpelier.
Windsor is a beautiful town on Connecticut river, 60 miles south of Montpelier. It is a place of considerable business and contain* the state prison. Population, in 1810, 2,757. Brattleborcmgh is on Connecticut river, 43 miles below Windsor, near the southeast corner of the state. Bemninglon, near the S. \V. corner of the state, is one of the oldest towns in Vermont, and is famous for the battle of August 1777, in which the American militia, under General Stark, defeated the British. Population, in 1810, 2,524. Rutland is on Otter creek, 57 miles north of Bennington, and 45 west of Windsor.
Middlebury, the seat of Middlebory college, is pleasantly situated on Otter creek, at the falls, 20 miles from the mouth of the river. In the vicinity of the falls there are numerous mills and manufacturing establishments. An extensive quarry of tine marble was discovered in 1804 on the bank of the creek, near the centre of the village. It is now wrought into tomb-stones, mantlepieces, side boards, &c. and transported to various parte of the country to the amount of 7,000 or 8,000 dollars annually. Population, in 1810, 2,138. Vtrgenntt is at the head of navigation on Otter creek, 11 miles below Middlebury.
Burlington, the seat of the University of Vermont, is delightfully situated, on a bay of the same name in Lake Champlaio, near the mouth of Onion river. The village occupies the side of a hill, ascending nearly a mile from the bay, and is one of the handsomest in the state. Within the limits of the township, a mile N. F. of the village, are the falls of Onion river, around which are several valuable mills and manufacturing establishments. About 20 vessels navigate lake Champlaio, most of which are owned in this place. Population, in 1810, 1,090. St. .llboMt is a flourishing town on lake Champlain, near the northwest corner of the state.
Education.] There are two colleges, one at Middlebnry and (he other at Burlington. MidJlebury college was incorporated in