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Portland. More shipping is owned here than in any other lowo in Maine except Portland; the number ot tons in 1815 being 20,627. Population, in 1820, 3,026. Wiwasei is II miles N. K of Bath. The harbor is safe, capacious, easy of access, and open at all seasons of the year. A large amount ol shipping is owned here. The number ot' tons, in 1815. was 18,429. Population, in 1820, 2,131. rVaUoborougk, 22 miles east ol'Wiscas*et, has a large amount of shipping, employed principally in the coasting I rude. Population, in 1820,2,448.
Caitint is important principally as a military position. It is situated on a promontory, nearly at the head of the east side of Penobscot bay. The harbor is excellent fur any number of ships of the largest sire, and is aocessible at all seasons of (be year. The town has great strength front its natural situation- From the narrowness of the isthmus which connects it with the mam, it could be insulated without much labor or expense; and this mode of defence, in addition to strong batteries, would enable it to resist any force which would probably be brought against it. An enemy in possession of Casline and having the control on the water, commands the whole country between U»e Penobscot and the St. Croix. This place was taken by the British during the late war, but was restored on the return of peace. Population, in 1820, 975.
Bangor is a flourishing town, 35 miles north of Castine, on the west side of the Penobscot, at the head of navigation. Population, in 1820, 1,221. Machiai, situated on a bay of the same name, 40 miles W. S. W. of Kastport, is a thriving town, and carries on considerable trade, principally in lumber. There are 26 saw-mills within the town, which cut on an average, upwards of 10,000,000, feet of boards in a year. Lubee is situated at the S. £. extremity of the state, on a peninsula, on the west side of P-Ksaraaquoddy bay, at the entrance. It is a new town, commenced in 1815, and is well situated for commerce. It has an excellent harbor and considerable trade. Population, in 1820, 1430. £aitport, on Moose islnnd,in Passamaquoddy bay, 4 miles M.N. W. of Lubec, is favorably situated for commerce. Population, in 1820, 1,937.
York is an ancient town, on the coast, near the southwest extremity of the state. Population, in 1820, 3,224. Oncost the tsouth of the river of the same name, is well situated for trade and manufactures. The principal village is at the falls, which famish numerous sites for mills and manufacturing establishments. Population, in 1820, 2,532.
Hallowell is a flourishing town on Kennebeck river, 40 miles from its month, at the bead of the tide, in the midst of a fertile country. The river is navigable to this place for vessels of 150 tons. Within a few years the town has increased very rapidly, and is now one of the most waelthv and flourishing places in Maine. Population, in 1820, 2,919. Augwta, on the Kennebeck,? miles above Hallowell, has 2,457 inhabitants. Vessels of 100 tons ascend to lhi»plftce. The most flourishing towns on the Kennebeck above Augusta, are FassoWorough, Watcruille atd A'orrigewock.
Population.] The population in 1790 was 96,540; in 1800, 151,719; in 1810, 220,705; and in 1820, 293.S35, having more than trebled in 30 years. The most populous part? of the state are on. the sea-coast and the Kenpebeck river. The northern half of the state i* as yet uninhabited, and almost unexplored. There is so much vacant, fertile land that the population will probably increase rapidly for many years.
Education.] Bowdoin college, in Brunswick, was incorporated in 1794. In 1822 it had a President and 4 professors, including 2 medical professors ; 2 tutors; 167 students, including 4S ii-cdtcal •students; a complete philosophical appaiatus, and a library ai about 5,000 volumes. The buildings are pleasantly situati-d no an elevated plain, commanding; a view of the Androscoggin au<i the adjacent country. The college was endowed by the legUlature of Massachusetts with five townships of land, and the sum of 3,000 dollars annually, in money. Since the separation of Maine from Massachusetts the legislature of the new state bat continued the annual grant. The principal private benefactor of the college was the late Hon. James Bowdoin, whose donation* amounted to 10,000 dollars.
The Maine cliarity school at Bangor was incorporated in 1814. Its object is to educate young men for the ministry in a shorter time than is usual at other seminaries. The course of study is completed in four years. The qualifications for admission are a knowledge oi the English and Latin grammar, and some acquaintance with the Latin classics. The founders of the institution propose by an abridgement of the term of study to furnish religious instructors, at a moderate expense, sufficiently qualified for the services required in new settlements. The school is under the direction of two professors and a preceptor, and in 1819 had 19 students.
A Literary and Theological institution, under the direction of members of the Baptist denomination, has been established ai Waterville, on the Kennebeck. It was opened in 1818 with 12 or 15. theological students. Common schools are supported by law in every town in the state.
Religion.] The Congregationalists and Baptists are the prevailing denominations. They have each more than 100 churches.
Government.] Maine was formerly united with Massachusetts under the same government, but in 1880, by a mutual agroeroent, the union was amicably dissolved, and Maine, after adopting a republican constitution, was erected into an independent stale and admitted into the Union.
Commerce.] A large portion of the state is yet covered with forests, and hence lumber at present is the great article of export. It is brought down all the principal rivers in large quantities. The other articles of export are tish, potaih, beefaod pork. Maine is finely situated for commerce. It has an extensive sea-coast abounding with good harbors, and the numerous rivers which intersect it afford an easy communication with the interior His supply of lumber, and of materials for potash, is immense, and its resources in the fisheries are almost inexhaustible. 'The people are very generaliy inclined to commercial pursuits, and perhaps no part of the United States suffers so much from restrictions on commerce. In amount of shipping it is the fourth state in the Union. The nearest market for the southwestern section of the state is Portland; for the country on the Kennebeck, Hallowell; for the country on the Penobscot, Bangor. The natural market for the northern half of the state, which is yet unsesttled, will be Quebec in Lower Canada, and Frederickton in New-Brunswick. Islands.) The coast abounds with islands and peninsulas. The largest is Mount Desert island on the west side of Frenchman's bay. It is 15 miles long and 12 broad. Deer isle is on the east side of Penobscot bay, about 8 miles S. E. of Castine.
Situation and Extent.] New-Hampshire is bounded N. by Lower Canada; E. by Maine; S. E. by the Atlantic; S. by Massachusetts; and W. by the western bank of Connecticut river, which separates it from Vermont. The eastern boundary is Piscataqua river, and a line drawn N. 2° W. from the source of that river, to the highlands which divide the waters falling into the St. Lawrence from those falling into the Atlantic. The state extends from 42° 41' to 45° 11' N. lat. and from 70° 40' to 72° 28' W. lon. It is 170 miles long from N. to S, and 90 broad at the southern extremity. The area is estimated at 9,491 square miles or 6,074,240 acres.
Divisions.] New-Hampshire is divided into six counties and 204 towns.
Counties. Towns. Pop. In 1810, Pop. in 1820. Chief towns. Rockingham, 46 50,175 55,246 Portsmouth, Concord, Strafford, 32 41,595 51,117 Dover. Hlilsborough, 40 49,249 53,884 Amherst. Cheshire, 37 40,988 45,376 Keene. Grafton, 35 28,462 32,989 Hanover. Coos, 14 3,991 6,549 Lancaster.
Total, 204 214,460 244,161
Lakes.] Winnipiseogee or Wentworth lake, near the centre of the state, is a beautiful body of water, 22 miles long, and from 3 to 12 miles broad. It contains a number of islands. The surrounding- country is mountainous and abounds with romantic scenery. Sullivan or Squain lake, lying a few miles N. W. of the Winnipiseogee, is b miles long and 4 broad. Sunapee lake, lying S. W. of lake Winnipiseogee, halfway between Merrimack river and the Connecticut, is 8 miles long and 3 broad.
Sea coast and Face of the Country.] The whole extent of sea coa«t is only 18 miles. The shore is generally a sandy beach, sind bordering upon it are salt marshes. There are several coves convenient for fishing vessels, but the only harbor for ships is that of Portsmouth, near the mouth of the Piscataqua.
Fcr 20 or 30 miies from the coast, the country is either level or variegated by little hills and vallies. Beyond this, the hills increase in size, and in many parts of the stale swell into lofty mountains, particularly in the north, and along the height of land between the Merrimack and the Connecticut. The mountains, lakes, cataracts, and vallies abound wilh suldime and beautiful scenery, and have acquired for the slate the title of "the Switzerland of America."
Soil and Productions.] The soil is inferior to that of the rest of New-England, and much of it is belter fitted for grazing than for agriculture. In many places, however, it is rich, particularly along the banks of the Connecticut and the Merrimack. The principal productions are grass, wheat, rye, Indian corn, beef, pork, mutton, butter and cheese. A great multitude of neat cattle, fed in the pastures of New-Hampshire, are annually driven lo the markets of Boston and other towns on the coast.
Mountains.] The White mountain range runs from north to south between I he Merrimack and the Connecticut, through nearly the whole length of the state. The loftiest summits are the Monadnock, near the S. W. corner of the state, which is 3,254 feet above the level of the sea; Sunapee mountain, ne.ir Sunapee lake; and still farther north, Moosehillock, the height of which is estimated at 4,636 feet: the most celebrated of all, however, are the White mountains, from which the range takes its name, and which are the loflie«t in the United Slates. They lie about 30 miles north of Winnipiseogee lake, around the sources of the Saco and the Merrimack. Within a circuit of liO miles there are 6 peaks, whose elevation exceeds 4,000 feet, and Mount Washington, the highest summit, was formerly estimated at '0,000, but more recent and accurate calculations reduce it to between 6,000 and 7,000.
Mount Washington is frequently visited by travellers, who ascend it by various routes, but most usually from the S. E; commencing in the town of Conway, and following the course <*( Ellis river, a northern branch of the Saco, which has its origin high in the mountain. After climbing by the side oi' this stream for a considerable distance, the trees of (he mountain begin to diminish in height, till at the elevation of about 4,000 feel, you ciraiP to a region of dwarfish evor^re'-ns, about the height of n man's head, which put forth numerous strong hohzoutal branches. closely interwoven with each other; thus surrounding the mountain with a formidable hedge, a quarter of a mile in thickness. On emerging from this thicket, you are above all woods, at the soot of what is called the bald part of the mountain, which is very steep and consists of a huge pile of naked rocks. After attaining the summit, the traveller is recompensed for his toil, if the sky be serene, with a most noble prospect, extending on the S. E. to the Atlantic ocean, the nearest part of which is 65 miles distant in a direct line. The Notch or Gap on the west side of the White mountains, aear the source of Saco river, is also frequently visited by travellers. It is a deep and narrow defile, in one part only 22 feet wide. The whole mountain, which otherwise forms a continued range, appears as if cloven down quite to its base, perpendicularly on one side, and on the other at an angle of 45 degrees. The road from Lancaster, on Connecticut river, to Portland, in Maine, passes through this gap, and is crossed by the river Saco, which comes tumbling down the side of the mountain ; and several brooks, the tributaries of the Saco, fall down the declivities, form ing a succession of beautiful cascades within sight of the road. No part of the mountain is more interesting to the lover of the picturesque than the scenery of this natural gap. Rivers.) The Connecticut forms the western boundary, separating New-Hampshire from Vermont. The Piscataqua runs in a S. S. E. direction about 40 miles and falls into the Atlantic below Portsmouth, forming during its whole course the boundary between Maine and New-Hampshire. The Merrimack rises in the White mountains, near the sources of the Saco, and running south through the centre of the state, passes into Massachusetts, where it turns, and running to the N. E. about 50 miles, falls into the ocean below Newburyport. The principal tributaries of the Connecticut, beginning in the south, are the Ashuelot, which joins it near the S.W. corner of the state; Sugar river, which is the outlet of Sunapee la':e ; Lower...]amonoosuck, which rises in the White mountains, near the sources of the Merrimack, and discharges itself at Bath; and Upper .4mmonoosuck, which discharges itself at Northumberland. The principal tributaries of the Merrimack from the west are, the Contoocook, which joins it at Concord; and Baker's river, which rises in Moosehillock mountain and empties itself at Plymouth. The principal tributaries from the east are Winnipiseogee river which forms the outlet of Winnipiseogee lake, and Squam river, which is the outlet of Squain lake. Inland .Yavigation.] The Middlesex canal, in Massachusetts, connects Merrimack river with Boston harbor; and by means of various improvements around the rapids and falls of the river, the navigation is now extended as high up as Concord. A company has been incorporated to extend this navigation above Concord and through Winnipiseegee river into Winnipiseogee lake. A company has also been incorporated to cut a canal from Winnipiseogee lake to the tide waters of the Piscataqua, which will