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tors and Representatives. The salary of the President is $25,00n per annum; of the Vice President, $5,000. The principal officers in the executive department are the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, the Attorney General, and the Postmaster General
Army and Muvy.] The army, in 1820, consisted of 10,000 men, occupying numerous post* along the maritime and inland frontier. The navy at present (1822) consists of 7 ships of the line, 8 frigates and 23 smaller vessels; besides 4 ships of the line and 37 smaller vessels on the great lakes. The officers are 31 captains, 31 masters commandants, 196 lieutenants and 336 midshipmen.
Revenue.] The revenue of the United States, in 1819, was £21,435,700. More than nine-tenths of the revenue have beeo usually derived from duties on imports. The sale of public lands for several years past has also yielded a considerable sum, and the amount from this source is rapidly increasing. The internal revenue and direct taxes on houses and lands yield very little, being only resorted to in cases of emergency.
Public Debt.] The public debt contracted in support of the war of independence, amounted in 1791. to $75,463,-167. Darting the long pence between 1783 and 1812 the country was prosperous, and the debt was gradually reduced to $36,656,93i. The war of 1812, MS, and '14, increased it again more than three-fold, and in 1816 it was $123,016,375. It has since been greatly reduced, and in October 1st, 1820, was $91,680,090.
Cummerre and Manufacture*.] The commerce of the United States consists principally in the exchange of agricultural produce for tht; manufactures of other parts of the world, and the proportions of tropical climates. The whole valne of the exports a 1821 was $b4,974.382, of which $43,671,894 was domestic produce. The principal article is cotlon; the quantity of which has been continually and rapidly increasing for more than .*' years. In 1700 the amount exported was only 100,000 pounds; ia 1795, 1,300,000; in 1800, 17,789,803; in yt04, 35,034,175; and in 1817. 85,649,328 pounds, the value of which was £22,628,000 Netct in importance to cotton are wheat and (lour, of which the amount eX(>ortpd in 1817 was 1,479,198 barrels, and the vakw $18,482,000. Tobacco, lumber, rice, pot and pearl ashes, Indua corn. fi>h, beef and pork are also exported in large quantities. The principal articles imported may be arranged in the following order; manufactured goods, principally from Great BriUin; sugar, ruin, wine, molasses, brandy, coffee and ten*.—The *nip» ping belonging to the Cnit'-d Stairs in 1818 was 1,165,185 ton* It is owned principally in New-England and New York. Tb* stales south of the Potomac own only onp eight part.—The annual value of the manufactures of the United States waa c«4fr mated in 1810, at $172,762,876.
NEW ENGLAND OR EASTERN STATEa
Situation and Extent.] New-England is bounded N. by Lower Canada; E- by New Brunswick; S. E. and S. by the Atlantic ocean; and W. by New-York. The area is estimated at 65,000 square miles.
Sea-coast.] The ocean washes New-England for about 700 miles. The coast is bold and abounds with fine harbors. Perhaps no country in the world has greater advantages for navigation. In this respect Maine is peculiarly distinguished.
Mountains.] There are several ranges of mountains which traverse the western part of New-England from north to south. 1. The Green mountain range commences in the N. W". part of Vermont, a little below the parallel of 45' N. lat. and running in a southerly direction through Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut, terminates at New-Haven on Long Island sound, in a noble bluff called West rock. It is nearly 300 miles in length, and the highest summits are about 4,000 feet above the level of the ocean. 2. The Taghkannuc range is a western branch of (he Green mountain range. It leaves the principal chain a little, below Middlebary, nearly opposite the southern extremity of lake Cbamplain, and running almost parallel with the Green mountain range, along the western boundaries of Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut, terminates als* on Long Island sound, 20 miles S.W. of New-Haven. 3. The White mountain range commences in the northern part of New-Hampshire, and running in a south erly direction, forms the height of land between Connecticut and Merrimack rivers, after which it passes into Massachusetts, and a little below Northampton divides into two branches. The westera branch, called the Mount Tom range, crosses Connecticut river, and running in a direction a little west of south, terminates at New-Haven, iu a bluff called East rock, about two miles from the southern extremity of the Green mountain range. The eastern branch, called the Lyme range, runs directly south and terminates at Lyme, situated on the east bank of Connecticut river at its mouth. The highest summit of the While mountain range is more than 6,000 feet above the level of the ocean.
Production*-] Grass is undoubtedly the most valuable object of culture in New-England. One hundred acres of the best grazing-land under the direction of a skilful farmer, will yield as much net profit as J 50 of the best arable land under the same direction. After grass, maize is the most valuable crop in thi* couutry. It is extensively the food of man, being palatable, wholesome, and capable of being used agreeably in more modes of cookery than any other grain. It is also the best food for cattle and swine. Wheat grows well wherever the ground is sufficiently dry, in all the countries westward of the Lyme and White mountain ranges; and in many places eastward of that limit. Ap
ples abound in New-England, more perhaps than in any other country, and cider is the common drink of the inhabitants of every class. Rye, barley, oats, potatoes, beans, peas, onions and other garden vegetables are also among the cultivated productions. The noblest production of the forest is the white pine. It grows to six feet in diameter, and its height, in some instances, exceeds 260 feet. Its stem is often exactly straight, gently tapering, and without a limb to the height of more than 100 feet. This tree is of vast importance for building. The white oak of New-England, is a noble and most useful tree, but is less durable than the English oak. The chesnut is generally used for fencing, and is very valuable for building. The maple is a noble tree, and the sugar made from its sap is of an excellent quality. Education.] Common schools are universally established, and a person of mature age, who cannot both read and write, is rarely to be found. Academies are also numerous; and there are nine colleges in which the Greek and Latin languages, mathematics, natural philosophy, chemistry, logic, rhetoric and all the higher branches are taught by recitations and lectures. The term of study in all the colleges is four years. Divisions.] New-England is divided into six states, viz. 1. Maine. 2. New-Hampshire. 3. Vermont. 4. Massachusetts. 5. Rhode Island. 6. Connecticut.
Situation ana. Extent.] Maine is bounded N. W. and N. by Lower Canada; E. by New-Brunswick; S. by the Atlantic ocean, and W by New-Hampshire. It extends from 48° 5' to 48° N. lat. and from 66° 49' to 70° 55' W. lon. The area is estimated at 31,750 square miles.
Divisions.] The state is divided into nine counties and 246 towns.
Counties. Towns. Pop. in 1810. Pop. in 1820. Chief towns, 1. York, 23 41,877 46,283 York 2. Cumberland, 25 42,831 49,445 Portland. 3. Lincoln, 34 42,992 53,189 Wiscasset. 4. Hancock, 31 30,031 31,290 Castine. 5. Washington, 13 7,870 12,744 Ma huas. G. Oxford, 31 17,630 27, 104 Paris. 7. Kennebeck, 33 32,564 42.623 Hallowell. 8. Somerset, 31 12,910 21.787 Norrigewock. 3. Penobscot, 25 sk 13,870 Bangor.
Total, 246 228,705 298.335
* In 1810 Penobscot county was included in Hancock.
The rive first named counties border on the sea coast from S. W Id N. E.; the rest lie behind them in the interior in the same direction.
Bays.] The coast of this state is very bold, and indented by numerous spacious bays, the principal of which, beginning in the west, are, Casco bay. which sets up between cape Klizabeth and cape Small Point ; Penobscot bay, which receives the river of the same name, and contains numerons islands and many fine harbors; Frenchman's bay, Mill farther east; and Fassamaquoddy bay, which receives St. Croix river, and communicates with the bay of Fundy between West Quoddy head und the o»ast of NewBrunswick.
Lakes.] Umbagog lake is principally in this state, but partly in New Hampshire. It is 18 miles long and in some places 10 broad. Moosehead lake, lying N. E. of the Umbngog, is the largest in New-Eugland. It is said to be GO miles long. Chesuncook lake, 10 or 15 miles N. E. of the Moosehead, is a large body of water. There are several other large lakes, still further north; bat very little is known about them, that part of the state not having as yet been explored. Hebago pond is a large body of water, 18 miles N. W. of Portland. Smaller lakes and ponds abound in every part of the state.
Rivers.] The following are the principal rivers, beginning in the west. 1. The Saco rises among the White mountains in New Hampshire, and running S. E. into Maine, falls into the sea at Saco. It has falls 6 miles from its mouth, which completely obstruct the navigation. 2. The Androscoggin forms the outlet of Umbagog lake. The first part of its course is in New-Hampshire. After entering Maine it runs at first in an easierly and afterwards in a southerly direction, and joins the Kennebeck, after a course of about 150 miles. It has fulls near its mouth. 3. The Kennebeck is formed by the union gf two principal branches. The eastern branch is the outlet of Moosehead lake; the western, called Dead river, rises in the highlands which separate Maine from Canada, and unites wi(h the eastern branch about 20 miles below Moosehead lake. After the junction, the river flows south to the Atlantic. It is navigable for ships 1? miles, to Bath ; for sloops 46 miles, to Augusta, at the bead of the tide ; and forboats 60 miles, lo Watc rville. At Waterrille the navigation is interrupted by T<-conic falls,which afford nutt'Tous sites for mills. 4. The Penobscot, the largest river in Maine, h formed by two principal branches. The western and longest branch rises west of Moosehead lake, in the highlands which separate Maine from Canada, and flowing east through Chesuncook lake, unites with the eastern branch about 60 miles north of Bangor. After the junction, the river flows south, and falls intothe head of Penob*cot bny. It is navigable for sen vessels to Bnngw, 50 miles from the entrance of the bay. 5. The St Crow-river,. called al«o the Schoodic, forms the boundary between the Unite<! Stales and New Brunswick from its mouth to its source. It falls into Passamaqnoddy bay and is navigable for sea vessels to the fsllSj
at Calais, 30 miles from its mouth. C. The Si- John, river rises t little north of Chesuncook lake, and after passing through three great lakes, runs in a northeasterly course for some distance, and then, turning to the southeast, enters New-Brunswick, and discharges itself into the bay of Fumly. With the exception of live places, where there are short portages, it is navigable for boats from its mouth to its source, a distance of more than 300 miles.
Face of the Country.] An extensive district in the northwestern and central parts of the state lying around ihe head waters of the Kennebeck, Penobscot and St John is mountainous, and some of the summits a/e very I >fty, particularly Katahdin, situated 80 miles north of Bangor, and supposed by some to be the highest land in the United States. The rest of the state is generally hilly, and the hills diminish in height on every side as you recede from the mountains. In the southwestern parts are extensive plains.
Climate.] In all parts of Maine the air is pure and salubrious. The summers in most parts of the state are favorable to the growth of all the vegetable productions of the northern state*. In some parts, however, Indian corn, and the plants of a more tender kind, which require a great and uniform degree of heat, are frequently injured, and sometimes destroyed by untimely frosts. la the winter the snow covers the ground to a considerable depth and continues, in some parts, two months, and in others four and eves five. In the interior, the temperature, both in summer and winter, is much more uniform than on the sea coast.
Soil ami Productions.] The southwestern part of the state, and the tract of country along the sea coast from 10 to 20 miles wide, is generally poor, though in some places tolerably fertile. The land on the Kennebeck and between that river and the Penobscot is excellent East of the Penobscot it is less productive. The mountainous tract in the northwest has a poor soil. The lands on St. John's river and its numerous branches are said to be very fertile, but this part of the state is not yet settled. The principal productions are grass, Indian corn, wheat, barley, rye, flax, &c.
Chief Town*.] Portland, the capital, is situated on a peninsula in Casco bay 118 miles N. N. E. of Boston. The harbor is safe, easy of access, and seldom frozen over, but is not large, and requires considerable fortifications for its protection. The town is by far the most considerable in the state in population, wealth and commerce, and is connected with an extensive and growing back country. In 1SI5.it was the eighth town in the United states in amount of shipping, the number of tons being S0,4I7. The population, in 1820, was 8,581.
Brunswick, the seat of Bowdoin college, is 30 miles north-east of Portland, on the Androscoggin, at the falls, which furnish here, many valuable seats for mills and manufactories. The population, of the town in 1820 was 2,931.
Biith is on the western side of Kennebeck river, nl the head of winter navigation, 12 miles from the sea, and 35 miles N. K. of