« PreviousContinue »
Bay.] The bay of Quint i is a long narrow harbor, at the northeast end of Lake Ontario. It is 70 miles long, and from 1 to & broad, and affords safe navigation ihrpugh its whole length.
Commerce.] The commerce of this province hitherto, has been carried on principally through the St. Lawrence; but when the great canal from Lake Erie to Hudson river is completed, the trade of the western part of the province will probably go through that channel. The principal exports are wheat, and other agricultural productions.
Religion.] The inhabitants have recently emigrated from various parts of the United States, and, as might be expected, arc of many different religious denominations. The Methodists are most numerous; next to them are the Baptists and Presbyterians. Like all newly settled countries-the province is poorly supplied with regular ministers-.
Roods.] Tolerably good roads have been made at the expense of the government, through all the principal settlements. Nearly the whole revenue of the province has, forseveral years, been expended by the King in opening new roads.
Climate.] The province is in a more southern latitude than Lower Canada, and the climate is much warmer.
Situation.] New Britain comprehends all that part of British' America, which lies north and northwest of Upper and Lower Canada. It is a vast country, extending from the Atlantic Ocean on the east, to the Pacific on the west; and from Canada and the United States On the south, to the Frozen Ocean on the north.
Divisions.] Hudson's Bay divides this country into two parts, the eastern and the western. The eastern is subdivided into Labrador and East Main; and the western into New South Walts and New North Wales.
Face of the Country.] This is a dreary desolate country. The surface, to a great extent, is naked rock, or covered with a soil so thin, that nothing but moss and shrubs, or stinted trees can grow upon it. There are innumerable lakes and ponds a/ fresh water scattered over the whole country.
Bays.] The two principal bays are Baffin's and Hudson's .The southern part of Hudson's Bay is called James'' Bay.
Lakes.] The small lakes are too many to be enumerated. The three largest are Slave Lake, .Ithapescow Lake or Lake ot the hillsy and Lake Winnipeg.
Rivers.] Mackenzie's river, which is the outlet of Slave Lake, and Nelson's river,which is the outlet of Lake Winnipeg, are among the greatest rivers in North Amcrfca. Unjiguk and
dthapucow rivers are the remote sources of Mackenzie's river; and the Saskatchawine is the remote source of Nelson's river.
Churchill and Stvern rivers empty into the western 9ii!e of Hudfon's Bay. Albany, Moose and Rupert rivers empty into the southern part of James Bay.
Production*.] The climate is so cold, and the soil so barren, that nothing of the vegetable kind can flourish here. Wild animals are abundant The principal are beavers, bears, deer, raccoon* and musquashes.
fur trade.] lfew Britain is the region of the fur trade. On all the principal lakes, and at the mouths and forks of nearly all the considerable rivers, there are trading houses, established by the English. Here the Indians bring the furs of the animals which they kill in hunting, and sell them for blankets, guns, powder, beads, &c.
The fur trade is carried on by two companies of merchants; the Hudson's Bay Company, and the JVorthwett Company. The trade of the former is confined to the neighborhood of Hudson's Bay ; that of-the latter extends from Lake Winnipeg to the Rocky .mountains and the Frozen Ocean.
The northwest company was formed in 1783, and is composed principally of Montreal merchants. They employ in the concern 60 clerks, 71 interpreters and clerks, 1120 canoe-men, 35 guides, and about 140 canoes. Each canoe will carry about 3,400 lbs. weight, and is navigated by 8 or 10 men. These canoes compose two fleets, each of which starts every other year from Montreal, leaded with coarse linen and woollen cloths, bbnkets. arms, ammunition, tobacco, hats, shoes, stockings, &c. obtained from England; and spirituous liquors and provisions purchased in Canada. These goods are carried to the Indian country and exchanged for furs.
Mode of travelling.] The only mode of travelling, in this desolate country, is in birch bark canoes. With these the inhabitants pass up and down the rivers and lakes, and when they meet with a rapid, or wish to pass from one river to another, they get out of the canoe and carry it on their shoulders. la this way, the men engaged in the fur trade travel thousands of miles, and carry all their goods.
Settlement}.] The Moravian missionaries have 3 small settlements among the Esquimaux Indians, on the coast of Lahra.'or, viz. Okkak A'kih, and Hopedale. These, and the forts and houses established by those engaged in the fur trade, are the only settlements of white men. The principal forts are Fort Chepewvan on Athapescow Lake, Churchill,, at the mouth of Churchill river, and York at the mouth of Nelson's river.
Inhabitants.] The Esquimaux Indians inhabit the coast of Labrador, and the shores of the Frozen Ocean. Tbey are of the same race with the Greenlanders. Like them they live principally on seals and whales, and confine themselves to (he sea coast. The interior is inhabited by various tribes of Knisteneaux and Cbepewyan Indians. Their number is unknown.
Situation and Extent.] The United States is the great middle division of North America. It is bounded N. by New Britain and the Canadas: E. by New Brunswick and the Atlantic ocean; S. by the gulf of Mexico; S. W. by the Spanish dominions, and VV by the Pacific ocean.
The boundary on the side of the Spanish dominions, according to the treaty with Spain, ratified in 1821, begins on the gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the river Sabine, and proceeds along the west bank of thai river to the 32d degree of N. lat.; thence, by a line due north, (o Red river; thence up that river to the meridian of 100° W. Ion. thence due north, along that meridian to the river Arkansas; thence, along the south bank of the Arkansas to its source; thence, due north or south, as the case may be, to the parallel of 42° N. lat. and thence, along that parallel, to the Pacific ocean. On the side of the British dominions, the boundary begin- in the Atlantic ocean, at the mouth of the river St. Croix, and proceeds up that river to its source ; thence, due north, to the highlands which separate the waters falling into the St. Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic; thence, along those highlands, in a S. W direction, to the parallel of 45* N. lat.; thence, along that parallel to the river St. Lawrence; and thence, up that river, and the great lakes, Ontario, Erie, Huron and Superior, to the most northwestern point of the lake of the Woods. By the treaty with Great Britain in 1819, the boundary line proceeds from the last mentioned point, due north or south, as the case may be, to the parallel of 49° N. lat. and thence, due west along that parallel to the Kocky mountains. The boundary between the Rocky mountains and the Pacific ocean remains unsettled.
Including Florida, which has been ceded by Spain, the territory of the United States extends from 25° to 49° N. lat. and from 66" 49' to 125° W. Ion. embracing 2,000,000 square miles.
Divisions.] This extensive country is divided into 24 States, t District and 6 Territories. The States are usually classed under four divisions, Eastern, Middle, Southern and Western.
Seat Bays and Sounds.] The territory of the United States!* washed by three seas ; the Atlantic ocean on the east; the gulf of Mexico on the south; and the Pacific ocean on the west. The principal bays and sounds on the Atlaotidborder are, Passamaquod<ly bay, which lias between Maine and the British province of New-Brunswick; Massachusetts bay, between cape Ann and cape Cod, on the coast of Massachusetts; Long island sound, between Long island and the coast of Connecticut; Dela-xarc bay, which sets op between cape May and cape Henlopen, and separates New Jersey from Delaware; Chesapeake ooy,which communicates with the ocean between cape Charles and cape Henry, and extends in • northerly direction for 200 miles through the states of Virginia and Maryland; and Albemarle and Pamlico sounds on the coast of North Carolina. There are no very large bays or sounds on the coast of the gulf of Mexico or of the Pacific ocean.
Fact of the Country.] This country is intersected by two principal ranges of mountains; the Rocky mountains in the west, which run across the territory in a direction nearly parallel with Ilia coast of .he Pacific ocean, at the distance of several hundred miles; and the Alleghany mountains in the east, which run nearly parallel with the Atlantic coast from Georgia, through Tennessee, Virginia and Pennsylvania to New-York. The immense valley included between these two ranges of mountains is intersected by the Mississippi river, which runs from north to south through the whole length of the United States. The country west of the Mississippi, with few exceptions, is a wilderness inhabited by savage Indians, and beyond the meridian of 91° the whites have scarcely a solitary settlement; but the country on the east of the Mississippi is, to a considerable extent, cultivated and populous.
In that part of the United States which lies east of the Mississippi, the most remarkable feature in the face of the country is the low plain, from 50 to 100 miles wide, which extends along the Atlantic coast, from Long island to the gulf of Mexico; a distance of more than 1,000 miles. Beyond this plain the country rises towards tbe interior till it terminates in the Alleghany mountains.
Lakes.] All the large lakes in the United States are on or near the northern boundary, where they form a connected chain extending through a distance of more than 1,000 miles. 1. Lake Superior, the hrst in the chain, is the largest body of fresh water on the globe, being 490 miles long and 1,700 in circumference, it discharges its waters at its S. E. extremity through the straits of St. Mary into lake Huron. 2. Ijdke Huron, the second in the chain, is 218 miles long from east to west in the widest part, and 180 from north to south, and is estimated to contain 5,000,000 acres. It is connected on its X. W. side with takes Superior and Michigan, and discharges itself at its southern extremity through St. Clair river into lake St. Clair. 3. Lake St. Clair is 90 miles in circumference, and discharges itself into lake Erie through Detroit river. The bottom of the lake is said to be a perfect plain, the depth being invariably 21 feet except near the shore. 4. Lake Erie is 290 miles long from S. W. to N. E., in the widest part 63£ broad, and discharges itself at its N. E. extremity through Niagara river into lake Ontario. 5- Lake. Ontario is 171 miles long and 60 in its greatest breadth, and discharges itself into the ocean through the river St. Lawrence, which issues from it at its N. E. extremity. 6. Lake Michigan, the largest lake which lies wholly in the United States, is 260 miles long. On the N. E. it communicates with lake Huron through the straits of Michiliimackinac, and on the N. W. it branches out into two bays, one called Noquet's bay and the other Green bay. 7. Lake Champlain lies between the states of New-York and Vermont. It is 128 miles long, and from half a mile to 16 miles broad, and discharges itself at its northern extremity through the river Sorelle into the St. Lawrence.
Rivers.] The principal rivers of the United States may be divided into four classes. First, those which drain the waters of tho country included between the Alleghany and Rocky mountains; Secondly, the rivers which discharge themseives into the Atlantic ocean, all of which are east of the Alleghany mountains; Thirdly, the rivers south of the Alleghany mountains, which discharge themselves into the gulf of Mexico; Fourthly, the rivers west of the Rocky mountains, all of which discharge themselves through the Columbia into the Pacific ocean.
The principal rivers which drain the waters of the country between the Alleghany and Rocky mountains are the Mississippi and its branches. The Mississippi rises west of lake Superior in