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Algiers and Tripoli,
Ostrich feathers, wax, hides, dates, wool.
Turkey, Carpets, muslins, swords, corn, wine and fruits.
Italy, Silks, wine, corn, oil and fruits.
France, Silks, woollens, linens, wines and brandy.
Spain, Silk, wool, wine, olive oil, fruits and salt.
Portugal, Wine, salt, wool and fruits.
Netherlands, Fine linen, laces, woollens, and other manufactures.
Germany, Linens, various manufactures, and corn,
Denmark, Corn, fish, horses and live hogs.
Russia, - hemo cloth, tallow, iron, corn and urS.
Sweden, lron, lumber, copper, train oil and her
Norway, Lumber, fish, hides and copper.
Great Britain, Woollens, cottons, iron ware, tin and elegant earthen ware.
Ireland, Linen, beef, tallow, butter and hides.
Remarks. Manufactured goods come from thickly settled
countries, as China, India, Japan, Great Britain, and the Netherlands. Thinly settled countries commonly export raw materials, the produce either of agriculture, mines, or the forest. The best furs come from cold climates. They are exported from the northern parts of Asia, Europe, and America. Sugar, cotton, coffee, spices, wine, &c. require a hot climate.
Questions. 1. What countries export silver? 2. What countries export gold 7 3. What countries export furs? 4. What countries, sugar, rum and molases 2 5. What countries export cotton 7 6. Woellen goods? 7. Cotton goods 7 8. Laces ! 9. Silk goods' 10. Sail cloth 7 11. Where do the most beautiful carpets come from ? 12. What countries export tin 7 13. Iron? 14. Diamonds 7 15. Tea 2 16. Porcelain 17. What articles are exported from Great Britain 18. What, from Mexico? 19. What, from China? 20. from Kamtschatka 7 21. from the West Indies' 22. from the Cape of Good Hope? 23, from Madeira 2 24, from the Northwest coast of America? 25. from the southern provinces of Brazil'
IV. Protestant Missions To The Heathen. The following table shows at one view the various societies of Protestants engaged in supporting missions to the Heathen. The first column gives the name of the society; the second, the country in which it is instituted; the third, the year in which it commenced operations ; and the fourth, the number of missionaries and teachers in its employ, stated generally for 1819.
Remarks- Besides the 440 missionaries and teachers, above enumerated, there are farmers,. mechanics, physicians, and the wives am) children of the missionaries, who are supported in whole, or in part, from the funds of the Societies. The United Brethren, sometimes called Moravians, are about 16,000 in number. They live principally in Germany- The United Foreign Mission Society is composed of the Presbyterian, Dutch Reformed, and Associate Reformed churches. The other names explain themselves.
According to the above statement, England supports 303 missionaries; Germany 85; the United States, 37, 4c
Questions. 1. In what countries are Societies established for sending Missionaries to the Heathen? 2. What are the names of the Missionary Societies in England 1 3. Which is the oldest Foreign Mission Society in the United States? 4. When did it commence its operations? 5. Which Societies employ most Mia sionaries? 6. When did the United Brethren commence their missionary labors? 7. When was the London Missionary Society established? 8. What is the whole number of Protestant Mis sionaries to the Heathen? 9. How many of these are supported by England? 10. How many by the United States?
V. The following table shows the countries in which the missionaries are stationed, slated generally for 1819.
Remarks. The missionaries in Hindoostan are principally Baptists and English Episcopalians. Those in the West Indies are Methodists and United Brethren. Those, in South Africa were sent out principally by the London missionary society. Several ot the Missionaries in Ceylon were sent out by the American Board, but most of them are Methodists. Those in Labrador and Greenland are exclusively United Brethren. More than half of the missionaries in South Africa, and all those in ihe Society islands, are employed by ihe London Missionary society. The missionaries of the American Board are in the Sandwich islands, amonsf the Cherokee and Choctaw Indians, in Hindoostan and Ceylon.
Question*. 1. What country contains the greatest number of Protestant missionaries? 2. Of what denomination are ttie missionaries in Hindoostan? 3. What society employs most missionaries in South Africa? 4. Of what denomination are the missionaries in Labrador and Greenland? 5. Where are the missionaries of the Scotch Missionary society employed? 6. Where are the missionaries of the Vmerican Board of Foreign Missions employed? 7. What Society sent out the missionaries to the Society islands?
Winds. In the temperate and frigid zones the winds are variable, blowing irregularly, sometimes from one point of the compass, and sometimes Irom another. But in the torrid zone they are very regular. In all parts of Ihe Atlantic and Pacific oceans which lie in the torrid zone, except near shore, the winds blow constantly at all seasons of the year from the. east. Under the equator they are due east; as you approach towirds the northern tropic they incline to northeast, and towards (he southern tropic, to southeast. These winds are called TVar't Ttinds, because they much facilitate trading voyages. The Span* isli flotillas, which sail annually from Acapoico, on the western coast of Mexico, to the Philippine islands are borne along bj the trade winds with uninterrupted prosperity ; no attention, no skill, is required to steer them; no accident ever befalls them; and this voyage of nearly half the circumference of the globe, is often performed in sixiy days, without a change of sails. It is impossible ever to return by the same track.
In the Indian Ocean the regular trade wind prevails between the southern tropic and the 10th degree of south latitude; but to the north of this last boundary, begins the empire of the monsoons. For six months, from April to October, a strong wind, blown constantly from the southwest, bringing with it rain and tempest; during the rest of the year, a dry and agreeable wind blows from the northeast. The change from one monsoon to the other is accompanied with violent storms and hurricanes.
All the islands between the tropics are refreshed by the tee and land breeze. During the day a breeze always blows from the sea; but at night it changes, and blows from the land.
Questions. 1. In what part of the world are the winds variable? 2. In what part are they regular? 3. In what direction do the trade winds blow? 4. Where do the trade winds prevail? b. Which is the easiest voyage, from Mexico to the Philippine islands, or from the Philippine islands to Mexico? 6. In what direction do the monsoons blow? 7. Where do the monsoons prevail? 8. What is the state of the weather during the southwest mon«oon? 9- How is the weather during the northeast monsoon? 10. What is the weather during the change of the monsoons? 11. Whirh way does the wind blow on the islands of t!i" torrid zone during the day? 12. Which way during the night?
Currents. The great currents of the ocean generally run from east to west, following the course of the trade winds la passing, however, alnngthe shores of continents and islands, they sre often diverted from their natural course. Thus the great current which comes across the Atlantic ocean, proceeds between South America and the West India islands into the gult of Mexico, and then rushes out with great velocity between Cnlta and Florida, and proceeds north along the coast of the United States, and northeast as far as the shores of Iceland and Great Britain. This current is called the Gulf Stream. There is • current which comes from the Frozen ocean between Norway and Greenland, and passes along ^ the western coast of Graet Britain, into the English channel. It then turns cast, and ni-hes t irougli the •straits of Dover into the North sea. In the Pacific, Indian, an .Southern Atlantic ocean*, the currents, with few ex ii :pt.oiM, run from east to west
Question/. I. In what direction do the currents of the ocean generally run? 2. What occasions a deviation from this course in some instances? 3. Describe the course of the Gulf Stream. 4. V\ hat i» the course of the current which come* from the Frozen ocean btttween Norway and Greenland.
Voixahofs 4K» Earthq.vaxfs. Volcanoes arc burning mountains, with aperture*, out of which are thrown with dreadful explosion!", «she«. smoke, nmd, fire, red hot stones, and lava. More than 200 volcanoes have been discovered, scattered over the surface of the earth, and there are probably many others in parts pot yet explored. They mav he compared to chimneys, through which the immense fires which roge in the bowel* of the earth find vent. The most celebrated volcanoes are Mount Etna, in Sicily; Vesuvius, in Italy; and Hecla, in Iceland. The lofty peaks of the Andes in South America are one row of volcanoes, extending through New Grenada, Peru and Chili. The most terrible eruption of a volcano on record, is that which happened in 1815, in .">umbawa, one of the Sumla islands. The explosions were he.ml at the distance of more than 900 miles, and the ashes fell in «'i< h quantities, as to produce utter darkness, at the distance of 35o miles.
Earthquakes are the effect of the same subterranean fires whxh occasion volcanoes, and usually occur at the same time. They are commonly preceded by a general stillness in (lie air; the "hock comes on with a rumbling noise, like that of carriages or of thunder; the ground heaves or rocks from side to side. A 'ingle shock seldom lasts more than a minute, but the shocks frequently succeed each other at short intervals for a considerable time Awful chasms are often made, from which water bursts forth, and sometimes flames. The chasms are sometimes so wide is to overwhelm whole cities at once. Often the earth opens and closes again, swallowing up some people entirely, and squeezing others to death. Sometimes men have been swallowed up in one ch.i«m, and thrown out alive by another. Sometime'* houses and farms are carried to the distance of half a mile and every thing left standing. Sometimes whole islands are sunk. in the ocean, and new one- are raised. In 1755, the city of Lisbon was almost wholly destroyed by a great earthquake which extended over a considerable part of the globe.
Questions. I. What are volcanoes? 2. What do they disalurtre? 3. How many volcanoes have been discovered? 4. Which are the most celebrated volcanoes in the world f 6. Where was the volcano which produced so terrible an eruption in 1815? 6. How far were the explosions heard? 7. How far was total darkness produced by the fall of the ashes? 8. What are earthquakes occasioned by? 9. How are they usually preceded 1 10. What does the noise resemble? 11. How long do the shocks last? 12. What are some of the affects of an earthquake?