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brute. They kill each other on very trifling occasions, and the dead bodies are left in the streets to be devoured by the dogs and hyaenas. They eat the raw flesh of animals immediately after they are slain, while the blood is yet warm ; and when on a journey, it is a frequent practice to cut steaks from living animals and then to drive them on, roaring under the pain of the wound. The Galla.] The Galla are a savage people, who occupy large territories lying south of Abyssinia, and have overrun some of its finest provinces. Very little is known about them or the country from which they originated, but they appear to have boon making continual progress for at least two centuries both towards the north and the south. They are of a brown complexion, hardy, and warlike, and particularly well fitted for irregular and desultory warfare. Nothing, it is said, can be more uncouth than the aspect of this people, at least of those tribes who have made no alteration in their original rudeness. They plait their hair with the entrails of oxen, and wear round their waists the same ornaments. They anoint their heads and bodies with melted grease, and, except a goat's skin round their shoulders, leave the rest of the body naked. The Galla are divided into various tribes, which are known by distinct names.
IV. COUNTRIES SOUTH OF ABYSSINIA.
ADeL. This country lies on the coast immediately to the south-east of Abyssinia. The inhabitants are Mahonetans. They are not united under one government, but divided into a number of tribes which carry on almost perpetual war with Abyssinia.
BERBERA is the name of the district extending from Adel to cape Guardafui. It is more productive than any other part of the world in gums, myrrh and frankincense ; and the same of Arabia for these valuable aromatics is derived entirely from its being the channel by which the productions of this district are conveyed to foreign countries. Berbera, the principal town, is the seat of a great annual fair, which is resorted to by caravans from * great distance in the interior. This country is inhabited by yarious tribes of the Somauli, many of whom appear to be very civilized and commercial, and a recent traveller of intelligence has given it as his opinion that this would be one of the best routes for penetrating into the interior of Africa, particularly to the sources of the Bahr-el-Abiad.
The coast of AJAN extends from cape Guardafui to the river Magadoxa, or from 3° to 11° 50' N., lat. A great part of it is sandy, flat and barren. According to Mr. Salt, it is chiefly inhabited by different tribes of the Somauli.
The coast of ZANGUEBAR extends from the river Magadoxa to cape Delgado, or from 3° N. to 10° S. lat. It is inhabited by negroes, and is divided into several kingdoms, deriving their names from their principal towns, which are as follows. 1. Magadora, situated on a bay at the mouth of the river of the same name, in lat. 2°8' N. It carries on considerable commerce, which is conducted by the Arabs. The interior of the kingdom is almost wholly unknown. The Portuguese were never able to obtain any footing here, owing to the determined opposition of the people; and all Europeans have uniformly experienced the most inhospitable treatment. 2. Melinda, the capital of the kingdom of the same name, is situated on a bay in lat. 3°S. It is the seat of a very considerable trade, being resorted to by vessels from the Red sea, Persia, and the northern parts of India. The exports consist of gold, ivory, copper, wax and drugs, in exchange for silks, cottons, linen cloths, and European commodities. The city was formerly tributary to the Portuguese, but was wrested from them, more than a century ago, by the Arabs, in whose power it has ever since remained, and it is now seldom visited by European vessels. The interior of the country has not been explored by Europeans. 3. Mombaca, the capital of the kingdom of Mombaca, is situated on an island in lat. 4° 40' S. It was formerly occupied by the Portuguese, but they were expelled by the natives in 1631, and it is now rarely, if ever, visited by Eupean ships. It is much frequented, however, by the Arabs. who carry on an extensive trade. 4. Quiloa is built on an island, situated close to the main land, at the mouth of the river Coavo, in lat. 8° 41' S. The Portuguese found it, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, the largest town in Eastern Africa, and the centre of an extensive commerce. They established themselves here in 1529, but Mosambique being made the centre of their settlements, Quiloa was suffered to fail into decay, and at last was wrested from them by the Imam of Mascat in Arabia, in whose possesion it still remains. It is now of little importance. The islands of Zanzibar or Zanguebar, Monfia and Pemba, which lie off the coast of the kingdom of Quiloa, are also dependent on the imam of Mascat.
The coast of Mozambique extends from cape Delgado to the mouth of the river Zambese, or from 10° to 19° S. lat. The , ii) of Mozambique, situated on a small island in it. 15° S. is the capital of all the Portuguese possessions in East Africa. These possessions were at one time very extensive, embracing all the countries on the coast from the equator to the southern tropic. tout those situated to the north of the parallel of 10° S. lat. have been successively wrested from the in, and their dominion is now bounded by cape Belgado on the north and cape Corrient s on the south The city of Mozuinhoe retains few traces of its former importance. The trade, which consists chiefly in the export of gold, ivory and slaves, has much declined, and the population is estimated by Mr. Salt at only 2,800, of whom 500 are Portuguese 390 Arabs, and 1500 negroes. Quilinane, a small town with a fort and Portuguese garrison, is situated on the river Zambese near its mouth. It is the depot of the merchandize carried up the river, and of the ivory and gold brought from the interior.
The country in the interior, behind the coast of Mozambique, is inhabited by the Makooa, a powerful race of negroes, who cherish the most inveterate enmity to the Portuguese, and often extend their ravages to the coast, immediately opposite the city of Mozambique. The islands of Querimba extend along the coast of Mozambique, to the south of cape Delgado, and the part of the coast lying opposite to them is sometimes called the coast of Querimba.
The coast of SoFALA extends from the mouth of the Zambese to cape Corrientes, or from 19° to 23° 48' S. lat. The principal rivers which intersect this territory, are, the Zambese, a large river which forms the northern boundary, and discharges itself into the Indian ocean through many mouths near lat. 19° S.; the Sofala, which falls into the sea in lat. 20° 15 S.; the Sabia, which empties itself in 21° 10' S. lat. ; and the Inhambane, which runs into the ocean in 23° 15' S. lat. The countries lying immediately on the Sabia and the Inhambane are sometimes called after the names of the rivers.
The principal settlements of the Portuguese in this country are, 1. Sena, situated on the river Zambese, about 250 miles from its mouth. It contains about 2,000 inhabitants; is protected by a strong fort; and forms the centre of the trade carried on with the interior, which consists chiefly in the export of ivory and gold dust. 2. Sofala, situated near the mouth of the river of the same name, was formerly a place of great commercial importance, being the depot of the gold and ivory brought down the great river Zambese, but since the establishment of Quilimane, at the mouth of that river, Sofala has sunk into comparative insignifi cance. The Portuguese also maintain forts for the protection of trade on the river Inhambane and at cape Corrientes.
JMoearanga and Botong are extensive countries in the interior behind the const of Sofala. Very little, however, is known about them. Mocaranga is said to be divided into a great number of independent states. Zimbao is the capital.
General Remark.] Very little is known respecting Central Africa. South of the mountains of the Moon every part of it is wholly unknown ; and north of those mountains, there are very few districts which have ever been visited by Europeans.
Rixv.rs.] The (wo principal rivers are the Niger and tht Wad-el-GaZfil. The Niger rises, as has already been mentioned, in the mountains of Kong;, and flows east; how far it is not known- The Wad-el-Gazd rises in the eastern pari of Central Africa, and flows north for a considerable distance, till it is lost in the sands of the desert.
The following are the principal countries, known to Europeans, in Central Africa.
Bambouk is a kingdom lying between the sources of the Senegal and Gambia. It abounds with gold, and appears to be the main source of the large quantity of that metal which is on one side conveyed down the Gambia and Senegal, and on the other across the desert to Barbary. The inhabitants are Manriingo negroes. Jallonkadoo is the name of a country lying around the sources of tbe Senegal. Kong is a kingdom touth of the Niger near its source. Kaarta is a kingdom of considerable extent between the Niger and the Senegal. Kemmoo is the capital.
Bambarra i« a populous and powerful kingdom, bounded west by Kaarta, and east by Tombuctoo. It is traversed through it* whole extent from west to east by the Niger. This country was visited by Mr. Park, and he represents it as in general very fertile and highly cultivated. The inhabitants consist of a mixture of negroes and Moors. The negroes are the ruling people, and are of a very kind and gentle disposition: the Mours are more intelligent, active and commercial, but they are rough in their manners and intolerant. Scgo, the capital, is situated on both sides of the Niger in Ion. 2° 30' W. and contains about 30,000 inhabitants. Bammakoo is 180 miles S. W. of Sego, on, the Niger, at the point where the navigation is interrupted by cataracts. It carries on a great trade in salt.
Tombuctoo, one of the roost powerful and civilized kingdoms. in Central Africa, lies on both sides of the Niger, east of Bambarra. Caravans proceed annually from Tombuctoo to Morocco, Tunis, and the other principal cities in Northern Africa, carrying with them gold, slaves, ostrich feathers, goatskins, gums, ivorj, 6cc. and bringing in return various European and African wares. This extensive commerce implies a numerous population and a considerable degree of refinemeut, and Europeans hare been very anxious to obtain more information respecting this interest* ing but unknown country. No white man has ever yet been able to penetrate so far into the interior of Africa, if we except Adams, the American sailor, who according to his own account was carried captive, in 1811, to the city of Tombuctoo, the capital of the kingdom. His account, however, has been doubted, and all the other information we possess is derived from the reports of Moorish merchants. From them it appears that the inhabitants are partly negroes, and partly Moors, that the rovereign is a negro and is despotic, that the religion is Mahometanism, that schools are established, and that cotton and linen goods are extensively manufactured. The city of Tombuctoo is about 2 miles from the banks of the Niger, and 60 days journey from Asorocco.
Houssa is an extensive country on the Niger, east of Tombuctoo. It has never been visited by Europeans, but is said by the merchants to be more civilized than Tombuctoo. The inhabitants consist of negroes and Moors, but the negroes are the ruling people and form much the largest portion of the population. They are the most intelligent people in the interior of Africa. They manufacture cotton cloths in great quantities, and their agricultural system is as perfect as that of the Europeans, though its processes are more laborious. The city of Houssa, situated two days journey north of the Niger, is said to be considerably larger than Tombuctoo.
Bornou is an extensive country, lying on the Wad-el-Gazel, which traverses it from south to north and is lost in the desert of Bilma, which lies on the N. W. side of the kingdom and forms a part of the Sahara or great desert. The soil is fertile and produces Indian corn, rice, grapes, apricots, melons, lemons, and pomegranates in abundance. The limits of Bornou are very uncertain, but the emperor seems to be by much the most powerful sovereign in the interior of Africa; for, independent of his own very extensive dominions, all the countries to the south and west are his tributaries. Bornou, the capital, is situated about a days journey from the Wad-el-Gazel, and is said to be a very large city. Domboo is situated on the northern frontier, 200 miles N. N. W. of Bornou. Near it are the salt lakes whence not only this kingdom, but many of the states on the Niger are supplied with salt.
BegherME is a country very little known, lying south of Bornou and dependent upon it. BERGoo is an extensive territory having Begherme on the west, Darfur on the east, and on the north Bornou, to which it is tributary. Wara is the capital.
DARFUR is a considerable kingdom, filling up a large portion of the wide interval between Abyssinia and Bornou. On the N. W. it has Begherme and Bergoo, which separate it from Bornou, and on the E. Kordofan and the country of the Shilluks, which separate it from Sennaar and Abyssinia. The population is estimated by Mr. Browne at 200,000, and consists partly of settled inhabitants, living in towns and villages, and partly of wandering Arabs. Cobbe, the capital, contains 6,000 inhabitants, chiefly foreigners from Egypt, Sennaar and other eastern countries. The government, as is usual in Mahometan countries, is despotic. Barfur has an extensive commerce with Egypt, carried on by