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all the German provinces south of the Danube, viz. Lower Austria, Stiria, Tyrol, and the kingdom of lllyria. Some of these branches proceed for a short distance into Hungary, and gradually sink away into plains, while others run in a IS. L. direction and connect the Alps with the Carpathian mountains, the Sudetic chain and the Bohmerwald. The highest summits of the Ah*> in. the Austrian empire, are the Orteles in the Tyrol, 14.4C6 teet high, and the Great-Glockner on the borders of the Tyrol and the kingdom of lllyria, 12,978 feet.
Face of the Country.] A large portion of the surface of the Austrian empire is covered with mountains. The most mountainous districts are the Tyrol and the other German provinces south of the Danube. Croatia, Sclavonia, and Dalmatia are also traversed by mountain ranges. Bohemia and Transylvania are completely encircled by great chains of mountains, while in ibe interior they are traversed by inferior ridges. Moravia has mountain barriers on the west, north and east, but is open towards the south. In the othei provinces there are several very extensive plains. The principal of these is the gieat plain of Hungary which occupies all the central and southern portions of lhat country, and even extends over the Danube into Turkey. The plains of Galicia commence at the foot of the Carpathian mountains, and form a part of that immense level tract which terminates only on the Baltic, the White sea, and at the foot of the Ural mountains. Austrian Italy is another vast plain watered by the Po, and its branches.
Rivers.] The principal river is the Danube, which comes from Bavaria and runs from west to east through the province of Lower Austria into Hungary, where it turns to the south and then to the S. E- and becomes for a short distance the boundary between Hungary and Turkey, after which its course lies wholly in Turkey. The principal tributaries which it receives in the Austrian dominions are, the Traun; the Ens; the March or Morata, which brings with it the tributary waters gf nearly the whole of Moravia; the Raab ; the Waag ; and (he Thtisi, the largest river in Hungary, which rises in the Carpathian mountains on the borders of Galicia and Transylvania, and pursuing a circuitous course through the northern and central portions of the kingdom, join9 the Danube 19 miles N. W. of Belgrade on the Turkish frontier, after a course of 450 miles.
The other considerable rivers are, 1. The Elbe, which rise* in Bohemia, in the Kiesengebirge mountains, and after receiving the Iser, the Moldau, and the Eger, which bring with them the waters of the whole valley of Bohemia, pierces through an opening in the mount.-ins on the northern boundary and passes into Saxony. 2. The Vistula, which rises in Austrian Silesia, in the Carpathian mountains, and after passing by the free city of Cracow, flows through Galicia into the new kingdom of Poland. 3. The Dniester which rises in the Carpathian mountains, in Galicia, and after traversing a great part of that province passes into Russia. 4. The Po, which forms the southern boundary of A ustrian Italy. , 5. The Adige, the Brenta, the Piave and the Tagliamento, which discharge themselves into the gulf of Venice north of the Po. Lakes.] The principal lakes are, the Neusiedler See, in the west of Hungary near the German frontier, 30 miles long and 10 broad; the Balaton or Platten See, 40 miles long and 3 or 4 broad, lying about 70 miles S. E. of the Neusiedler See; lake Garda, lake Iseo, the lake of Como and the Lago Maggiore, all of which are in Italy. Climate.] In the Italian provinces, in Sclavonia, Croatia, and the level tracts in Hungary the climate is very mild, but in the southern part of Hungary and in Sclavonia it is unhealthy on account of the morasses. In the mountainous districts the air is much colder, and the winter earlier and longer than in the low country, yet the vallies between the mountain ranges frequently have a warm climate. The climate of Galicia is colder than that of other parts of the empire in the same latitude. Soil and Productions.] Notwithstanding the mountainous surface, the soil is on the whole very fertile. The most fertile tracts are the plains of Lombardy, Hungary and Galicia. Few countries on the globe can compare with the Austrian empire in the variety, richness and abundance of its natural products. In Lombardy and the southern part of Hungary are found the olivetree, rice and most of the southern fruits; corn and wine are abundant in the southern parts of Hungary, in Transylvania, and all the German and Hungarian states below lat. 49°; flax, and grain of various kinds flourish luxuriantly in Galicia. No country except France produces wines in such plenty and variety and of so fine a quality. The Hungarian wines, particularly those of Tokay are very celebrated. The mountains afford all the metals except platina in great quantities and of an excellent quality. Wood is abundant, particularly on the Carpathian mountains, which are covered with an almost uninterrupted forest. Fish abound in the rivers, particularly in the Theiss, which excels in this respect every other river in Europe. Agriculture.] The state of agriculture is very different in dis. ferent provinces. The plains of Hungary and Galicia are finely adapted for the production of corn, but agriculture is so imperfectly understood here that the quantity raised is but little more than sufficient for the supply of the country. Hungary abounds with excellent pasture lands, but they are altogether the work of nature; the inclosure, the draining and the irrigation of meadows being all unknown. In Austrian Italy, on the other hand, agriculture is carried to the highest perfection. .Minerals.] The Austrian empire is very rich in mineral productions. Hungary and Transylvania excel in this respect every other part of Europe, particularly in the amount of gold. Silver, copper and lead are also abundant in these countries; iron, in Styria; tin, in Bohemia; quicksilver, at laria, in the kingdom of Illyria; and zinc, coal, salt, and many other minerals in various places. Galicia is famous for its salt mines, the most celebrated
of which are at Wielicza, 8 miles south of Cracow, where the pits have bee* sunk to a great depth, and galleries and subterraneous chambers of immense size have been formed. The principal mine is more than a mile long, 1,000 feet broad, 743 feet deep, and has been worked above 600 years.
Chief Towns.] Vienna, the capital of the Austrian empire, and the largest city in Germany, is pleasantly situated on ibe right side of the Danube, where it receives a small river called the Vitn, which passes through the city and suburbs, Ion. 16*23" E. lat. 48* 13' N. The houses are built of stone and are generally 6 or 7 stories high. Among them are numerous and beautifal palaces, but many of the streets are narrow and crooked. The university of Vienna was founded in 1365, and has been particularly celebrated for its medical school. The library of the university contains 90,000 volumes and the imperial library 300,000. The charitable institutions are numerous, and in one of the hospitals there are annually received 16,000 patients. The mortality of this city is thought to be greater ihan that of any other place in Europe, and it is commonly said that one in 20 dies annually. The population is 240,900.
Prague, the capital of Bohemia, is on the Moldau, in lat 50s 5' N. Its university is the oldest in Germany, having been founded in 1348, and has at present 40 professors, 900 students, and « library of 100,000 volumes. Linen, cottons and silks are manufactured extensively at Prague. The population is 85,000, of whom 7,000 are Jews.
Trieste, the largest town in the kingdom of Illyria, is an important sea-port on the Adriatic, at the N. £. part of the gulf of Trieste. Its commerce is very extensive, it baing estimated that 3,000 vessels enter and leave the port annually. The popalatio* is 36,000.
Brunn, the capital of Moravia, is 75 miles N- of Vienna. It has 25,000 inhabitants, who are engaged principally in the manufacture of fine cloth and silks. Atuierlitz, 12 miles E. S. E. of Bnina is celebrated for the great battle fought near it, on the 2d Deceov ber 1805, between the. French commanded by Bonaparte and the united forces of Austria and Russia, which ended in the losal discomfiture of the Austro-Russian army.
The following are the other principal towns in the Gersoas part of the Austrian empire.
Innspruck, the capital of the Tyrol, is situated at the conflux of the Sill and the Inn and has 10,000 inhabitants. Tmppauy lb« principal town in Austrian Silesia, is on the Oppa, a branch oft ha Oder, and has 9,700 inhabitants. Lintz, on the Danube at the titflux of the Traun, has a great woollen manufactory established bv government, which gives employment directly or indirectly to 25,000 individuals in the town and surrounding country. Population 17,000. Salzburg, in Lower Austria, is romantically situated amidst lofty mountains on the Sal/.a, a branch of the Inn, in loo. 13c E. lat. 47° 18' N. and contains 13.000 inhabitants, b'roi.-, ;est town in Stiria, is on the Muhr, a branch of tie Dnre, and has 34.000 inhabitants. Laybach, in the kingdom of Illyria, 28 miles N. E. of Trieste, has 11,000 inhabitants. Botzen, in the Tyrol, on the Eisach, a branch of the Adige, is celebrated for its reat fairs, of which four are held annually. Population 8,000. Pest, the largest town in Hungary, is 130 miles E. S. E. of Wienna, on the E. bank of the Danube. The university, the only one in Hungary, is richly endowed, and has 40 professers and between 700 and 800 students. The manufactures are various and the trade extensive, particularly at the fairs which are annually held here. Population 42,000. Buda, the capital of Hungary, is on the west bank of the Danube, opposite Pest, with which it is connected by a bridge of boats. It is famous for its baths, which are efficacious in palsy and similar complaints. Population 30,000. Presburg, the former capital of Hungary, is on the N. bank of the Danube 38 miles east of Vienna. It contains 30,000 inhabitants. The following are the other considerable towns in the Hungarian states. Schemnitz is a large mining town 83 miles N. E. of Presburg. The mines of Schemnitz are the most extensive in Hungary, and the works are now at a great depth, the tunnel for drawing off the water being more than 1,100 feet below the surface. The chief metals are gold, silver, and lead. Population 23,000, of whom 12,000 are employed in or about the mines. Cremnitz is another celebrated mining town 18 miles N.W. of Schemnitz, with a population of 10,000, Esseck, the largest town in Sclavonia, is on the right bank of the Drave, two miles above its influx into the Danube, and has 9,000 inhabitants. Agram, the capital of Croatia, is 145 miles S. of Vienna, near the left bank of the Save, and has 17,000 inhabitants. Zara, the capital of Dalmatia, is a strongly fortified town and sea-port on the Adriatic, in lon. 15° 38' E lat. 44° 16' N. Population 5,000. Clausenburg, the capital of Transylvania, is on the Samos, a branch of the Theiss, and contains 14,000 inhabitants. Hermannstadt, formerly the capital of Transylvania, is 90 miles E. S. E. of Clausenburg and has 16,000 inhabitants. Cronstadt is a large trading town, with 23,000 inhabitants. JMilan, the capital of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, is on the small river Olona, in a beautiful plain between the Tesino and the Adda. Its public buildings are remarkably magnificent. The cathedral is the grandest and most imposing specimen of Gothic architecture extant, and after St. Peter's at Rome, and St. Paul's of London, is the finest church in Europe. The hospitals of Milan are numerous and on a large scale. The princi: pal literary institutions are the university, and the Ambrosian college, the last of which has a library of 140,000 volumes and 15,000 manuscripts. The population of Milan in 1820 was 135,000. Venice is a famous city situated in a bay of the Adriatic on 72 small islands, which are connected together by 450 bridges, the longest and most beautiful of which is the Rialto. The city is intersected in every direction by canals, which answer the purpose
of streets, passengers being carried to the various parts of the town in covered boats called gondolas. The city has no fortifications, but is well protected from attack bv a shallow marshy lake 6 miles broad, which separates it from the continent. The house* in Venice are all of stone, but most of them are mean buildings. Some of the public buildings are very fine and contain beautiful paintings. The city has considerable trade and manufactures and 109,000 inhabitants, of whom 2,500 are Jews and about 20,000 beggars.
Mantua is situated principally on two islands, formed by the ri vr Mincio 70 miles E. S. E. of Milan, and is boih by nature and art one of the strongest places in Europe. In the centre of one of the squares stands Virgil's monument, a column of marble, resting on a pedestal of the same material, with a bronze Matue of the poet at the top. The population in 1780 was nearly 30,000 but at present does not exceed 23,000.
The following are the other considerable towns in Austrian Italy. Padua is on the Brenta, 20 miles west of Venice, and contains 31,000 inhabitants. Its university was formerly celebrated throughout Europe, and resorted to by crowds of students from countries beyond the Alps : it has now 39 professors, but on an average not more than 300 student*. Cremona stands in a beautiful plain on the Po. 38 miles S. E. of Milan, and contains 30.000 inhabitants. Brescia is a large city 43 miles E. of Milan, containing 40,000 inhabitants. Lndi, on the Adda, 17 miles S. E. of MiIan, contains 17,000 inhabitants- One of the most daring exploits of Bonaparte's military career was performed here in 1796, by forcing with the bayonet the passage of the bridge over the Adda, though defended by 10,000 Austrians. Pavia, on the Tesino, 4 miles from the spot where it joins the Po, has a university and 23,000 inhabitants. Verona is a fortified town on the Adige and contains 55,000 inhabitants. In the Guildhall of the city are the statues of 5 illustrious natives of Verona, viz. Catullus, Marco* yEtnilius, Cornelius Nepos, the elder Pliny and Vitruvius. Here also is still to be seen a celebrated Roman amphitheatre large enough to accommodate 22,000 spectators.
Lember%, the capital of Galicia, stands on the Pelten, a branch ef the Dniester, in Ion. 24° E. lat. 49° 50' N. and contains 41,000 inhabitants. It is (he principal thoroughfare from Odessa and other ports on the Black sea to Vienna and the rpst of Germany, and has an annual fair on a very large scale. Brody, 70 miles E of Lemberg, has 24,000 inhabitants, of whom 16,000 are Jews. It carries on an extensive commerce with Turkey, Russia and Poland.
Military District.] The military district is a narrow tract of country extending along the whole Turkish border through Croatia, ^clavonia, Hungary and Transylvania. This district it under a military constitution, all the men who inhabit it being regarded as soldiers; and it is their duty to keep guard on the border day and night. The population oi the military district is more than 900,000, of whom 100,000 are able to bear arms, aid