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barren and mountainous regions. In Alentejo are more wander ing beggars than in all the rest of the kingdom. The best mariners come from Algarve. The Portuguese generally are inferior in stature to the Spaniards. Their complexion 19 swarthy, approaching to an olive. They have, generally, graceful ionns, regular features, and dark, brilliant, expressive eyes.
Language.] The Portuguese language strongly resembles tbc Spanish; both are derived chiefly from the Latin; but the latter is more remote from it and harsher to the ear than the former. Tbey have both about'the same proportion of Arabic words; lint the Portuguese has borrowed none of the guttural sounds of that language, which are numerous in.the Spanish.
Government.] The government is an hereditary monarchy. Portugal, like Spain, has its Cortes or representative body, consisting of the clergy, the high nobility and the commons, but they were not assembled after 1697, until the recent revolution, similar to that of Spain, restored them to their ancient powers. The kingdom is styled "The United kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the two Algarves." In 180G, when Portugal was invaded by the French, the court and royal family removed to Rio Janeiro in Brazil, but they have now returned to Europe.
Religion.] The religion is the Unman Catholic, and was formerly maintained with much intolerance. The inquisition punished heretics with great severity, but it now acts only as an engine of civil police. A great number of monasteries, (above 400) are still kept up, and a large portion of the best land of the kingdom is the property of the church.
Revenue, Jinny, <$*•] The revenue amounts to between £3,000,000 and £4,000,000, a considerable portion of which is derived from Brazil. The debt is small, not exceeding £12,000.000. The army contains 56,000 regular troop?, of whom 2-1,000 are in Brazil. The navy consists of 9 ships of the line, 14 frigates and many smaller vessels, manned by li.000 sailors.
.Manufactures and Commerce.'] Manufactures are in « very backward state, the establishments being on a small scale, and confined to a few of the large towns. The commerce of the kingdom is more considerable, but for a long lime past both the import and export trade have been managed chiefly by foreign merchants, particularly British, settled at Lisbon and Oportr. The exports consist almost entirely of raw produce, viz. wine, salt, wool and fruits. Of wine the average annual value exported is nearly £'2.000,000; of salt, fully £300,000; of wool, below £100,000. The imports are very various, viz. corn, flour, u>b, woollens, linen, cotton gon<ls, hard-ware and British manufactures of almost every kind. The whole lalue of the imports is about £.J,0O0,000. The intercourse with Brazil, which was formerly testricted to Putluguese merchants, is now open to all nation;.
Situation, and Ectent.] Italy is a large peninsula surrounded on all sides by natural boundaries; the Alps separating it from France on the west, Switzerland on the north, and Germany on the north-east, while on all other sides it is washed by the Adriatic sea and the Mediterranean. It extends from 37° 50' to 46° 50' N. lat. and from 6° to 19° E. lon. Its greatest length from N. W. to S. E. is 700 miles. The area, including the issands of Sicily and Sardinia, is estimated at 117,090 square miles. The shape of the continental part resembles that of a boot. Divisions.] Italy is at present divided into nine independent states as exhibited in the following table.
States, - Square miles. Population, Pop, on a sq. m. 1. Kingdom of Sardinia, 27,400 3,994,000 146 2. The Lombardo-Venetian kingdom or Austrian Italy, : 18,290 4,014,000 219 3. Kingdom of the Two Sici
Iies or Naples and Sicily, 43,600 6,618,000 152
4. States of the church, 14,500 2,346,000 162 5. Grand Dutchy of Tuscany, 8,500 1,180,000 130. 6 Dutchy of Parma, 2,280 377,000 165 7. Dutchy of Modena, 2,060 370,000 180 8. Dutchy of Lucca, 420 138,000 328 8. Republic of San Marino, 40 7,000 175
Total, 117,090 19,044,000 162
Bays and Straits.] The gulf of Venice or Adriatic sca washes , the whole eastern coast. The gulf of Taranto is a large bay - on the southern coast of the kingdom of Naples. The part of the Mediterranean which washes the coast of the kingdom of Sardinia is called the gulf of Genoa, and the part included between the island of Corsica and the coast of Tuscany, the Tuscan or Etrurian sea. The strait of Messina is between the southern extremity of Italy and the island of Sicily; and the strait of Bonifacio, between the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. JMountains.] The great mountain ranges of Italy are the Alps and the Apennines. The Alps commence on the coast of the Mediterranean, near the southern extremity of the kingdom of Sardinia, and after stretching far to the north and still farther to the east, take a southerly direction and terminate in Istria on the gulf of Venice, forming a vast semicircular barrier to Italy on the side of France, Switzerland and Germany. In different parts of its course, the range has different names. The part at the S. W. extremity, from the Mediterranean to Mont Viso, is called the Maritime Alps; from Mont Viso to Mont Cenis it is called the Gottian Alps; and the part north of Mont Cenis for some distance is called the Graian Alps. The next divisions are the Pennine, Lepontine, and Rhaetian Alps, which lie principally in Switzerland; after which follow the .Yurie, Carnic, and Julian Alps on the side of Germany. The highest summit, and the highest mount a in in Europe, is Mont Blanc, in the Pennine Alps, which reaches an elevation of 14,676 feet above the level of the sea. There are numerous summits in almost every part of the range which exceed 9,000 feet.
The Apennines may be considered as a continuation of the Maritime Alps. Thev leave that chain in lat 44° 12 N. and after running for a considerable distance to the east, turn gradually to the south, separate Tuscany from the States of the church, and after traversing the latter country and Naples in their whole extent, divide into two branches, one of which stretches along the eastern side of the gulf of Taranto, and terminates at Capo <n Leuca, while the other proceeds on the west side of the name gulf, and terminates near the strait of Mes«ina at the S. W. extremity of Calabria. The mountains in the island of Sicily are sometimes considered as a continuation of the Apennines.
Rivers-] The Po, the principal river in Italy, rises in Mont Viso, in the Cottian Alps, on the borders of France, and running in am easterly direction, passes through the kingdom of .Sardinia separates Austrian Italy or the Lombardo-Vcnetian kingdom from Parma, Modena, and the States of the church, and discharges itself through many mouths into the Adriatic, about 30 miles south of Venice, after a course of more than 500 miles. It is sufficiently deep to bear boats and barges at 30 miles from its source, but the navigation is at all seasons difficult, and not unfrequently hazardous on account of the rapidity of the current. Its waters are liable to sudden increase trom the melting of the snows and from heavy falls of rain, the rivers that flow into it being almost all moantain streams; and in the flat country in the lower part of its course, great dikes are erected on both sides of the river to prcn tect the lands from inundation. During its long course it receives a great number of tributaries, its channel bung the linal receptacle of almost every stream which rises on the eastern and southern declivities of the Alps, and the northern declivity of the Apennines. Its principal tributaries, beginning in the west, are,the Dora Riparia; the Dora Baltea; the Siura ; the Oreo; the .Sexto .the Tanaro ; the Tesino, which rises in mount St. Gnthard m Switzerland, and after flowing through lake Maggiore forms the boundary between Sardinia and the Lomhardo-Venetian kingdom; the Olona, which passes by Milan: the Adda, which also rise* in Switzerland, and flowing at first in a westerly direcliou passes through the lake of Como, after which it turns to the south and joins the Po near Cremona; the Q«liu, which rises on the borders of Switzerland and passes through lake Iseo; the Alincim, which issues from the southern extremity of the lake of Ganta, ^^•ar forming the lake and mar-lies that surround Mantua. falls into the Po, eight miles below that city; the Crostolo, which rise* in the dulchy of Carina, and joins the Po, a little above Guastalla; and the Panaro, which rises in the Apennines and pursuing a northerly course passes by the city of Modena, and falls into an arm of the Po.
The other large rivers in the north of Italy are, the Adigt, which rises in the Alps, and passing by Trent and Verona discharges itself into the Adriatic a little north of the mouth of the Po ; the Brenta, which rises in the Alps, 7 miles E. ol'Trent, passes by Padua, aad discharges itself into the Adriatic a little S. of Venice; the Piave, and the Tagliamento.
In the centre and south of Italy there are no large streams, the narrowness of the peninsula and the central position of the Apennines, causing the rivers to (low directly into the sea after short courses. The most considerable are, the Arno which traverses the grand dutchy of Tuscany from east to west, passing by the city of Florence, and discharges itself into the Mediterranean 12 miles N. of Leghorn, and 4 below Pisa to which it is navigable for small vessels; and the Tiber, which rises in the Apennines on the borders of Tuscany, and flowing south into the States of the church, passes through the city of Rome, and falls into the Mediterranean.
Lakes] The Lago Maggiore, which lies partly in Switzerland but principally in Italy is 27 miles long and on an average 3 broad. It contains the Borromean islands, which are the admiration of every traveller. The lakeo/Como, lying east of Lago Maggiore, is 36 miles long. The surrounding country is highly picturesque, being covered with vineyards, interspersed with beautiful villas, and skirted by lofty mountains. Still farther to the east is the small lake of Ism. which is followed by the lake of Garda, an expanse of about 30 miles in length by 8 in breadth. All these lakes discharge their waters into the Po. In the central part of Italy the largest lakes are, the lake of Perugia in the S.E. part of Tuscany, the ancient Thrasimenus, remarkable for the victory gained by Hannibal over the Remans; and the Bolscnu, in the States of the church.
Face of the Country.] Italy is surpassed by no country in the beauty and diversity of its natural scenery. Its mountains present every variety of form and elevation, of rugged rocks and precipices, thick and extensive forests, water-falls and all the component parts of picturesque beauty. The country between the Alps and Apennines consists principally of extensive plains, watered by the Po and its numerous branches. In the central and southern parts, the conntry on both sides, of the mountains is sometimes a> succession of hills and dales, and at others the vallies widen into plains of singular richness and beauty. The warmth of the climate, the richness of the soil, the frequency of the rains, the number of brooks and rivers, and the remarkable clearness of the atmosphere give a beauty to the Italian landscape which is not known in the rest of Europe.
Climate] In respect to climate, Italy is one of the most favored countries in Europe. The air is almost everywhere mild and genial, the excessive heats of summer being moderated by the influence of the mountains and surrounding sea. In Lombard v the climate in the mountains is cool; in the plains and on the coasts it is warm. Tuscany and the'States of the church lying more to the south have an increased degree of warmth; and in the kingdom of Naples, the beats of summer, especially wbeo the Sirocco blows, are sultry and oppressive. The climate of Italy is, in general, salubrious, but there is a'large district, extending along the coast of Tuscany and the States of the church from Leghorn to the Neapolitan frontier, a distance of 200 miles, and reaching in some places 40 miles inland, which is unhealthy in the summer and autumn. The prevailing complaint is an inter' milling fever of the worst kind; and the thin population who occupy this- tract are of a sickly and languid appearance. The cause of this evil is supposed to be the pestilential air of the stagnant marshes, which abound here.
Soil and Productions.] Almost every part of Italy possesses a fertile soil, capable, with' moderate estivation, of producing in abundance all kinds of grain, vegetables and fruits. The soil in Lombardy, particularly, is a deep, alluvial mould of great fertility. The most important productions are vines, olives, and other fruit of the most delicious quality. Cotton and silk are also cultivated to a great extent. Particular districts are distinguished for particular products. Lombardy is the chief corn country; m Tuscany and some parts of Sardinia, the-culture of fruit, particularly of olives, predominates; while the unhealthy district between Leghorn and the kingdom of Naples remains chiefly in a state of natural pasture.
Agriculture.] Skilful agriculture is confined to the north; ia the centre and south it is at a very low ebb; and throughout the whole kingdom of Naples, the abundance of vegetable productions is owing much more to the climate and soil than to the industry of the inhabitants. Lombardy on the other hand is in a high state of cultivation, and for many centuries has been styled the garden of Europe. Great attention is paid here to irrigation, a practice which is much facilitated by the number of rivers flowing from the Alps, and the inhabitants spare neither pains nor expense to distribute their waters over the plains.
Population, Language and Religion.], The population; including Sicily and Sardinia, is- estimated at 19,044,000. The Italian Ianlanguage is spoken throughout the whole country, but with various degrees of purity. On the borders of France and Germany it is corrupted by the languages of those countries. The purest Italian is spoken in Tuscany and at Uome. The established religion is the Roman Catholic; but all other sects are tolerated
Literature.] No country in Europe has surpassed Italy in the number of men eminent in literature and the fine arts. This we* partly to the circumstance tint it was the refuge of men of nrhen driven from Greece by the invasion of the Tarki.