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an extensive commerce ; the wool of Spain being mostly exported through this channel to England, Franco, Holland and other countries, while the whole of the north of Spain is supplied from this place with foreign merchandize. Population 15,000. Alieant is a well built maritime town in the province of Valencia on a peninsula, in a bay of the Mediterranean, at the bottom of a rocky mountain, on the summit of which is the castle. The c»romerce of the town is considerable, especially in wine and soap. Population 17,000.
Ferrol, an important sea-port and one of the principal stations of the Spanish navy, is on the north coast of Galicia at the influx of a small river into the bay of Corunna. The harbor is deep, safe and capacious, and the entrance narrow and well defended by forts. The town is strongl} fortified. Here are marine barracks for the accommodation of 6,000 men, dock-yards, arsenals, ropewalks and magazines of naval stores of all kinds. Population 10,000. Carthagena, the principal station of the navy in the Mediterranean, is an old and well knawn sea-port on the coast of Murcia, founded by the Carthaginian general, Asdrubal. The harbor is the best in the Mediterranean, if not in Europe- It consists of a natural basin of great depth, reaching close to the town and secured from every wind by the surrounding hills and by an island near the entrance. The town stands on a peninsula in this basin and contains 25,000 inhabitants.
Jiranjuez, the residence of the court during a part of the year, is on the Tagus, 20 miles from Madrid, with which it is connected by a superb road, constructed on the model of the ancient Roman roads. Here is a beautiful royal palace with elegant gardens. Population 10,000. Etcurial is a village of 2,000 inhabitants, situated in a dreary uncultivated country, 20 miles N. W. of Madrid, but celebrated for its palace, which is a magnificent structure erected at an expense of £3,000,000 sterling. 5*. IUefonso is a small town 40 miles north of Madrid, containing the royal palace of La Granja with its beautiful gardens. It is the highest royal residence in Europe, being at an elevation of 3,800 feet above the level of the sea. Population 4,300.
The other considerable towns are, 1. Burgos, the capital of the province of the same name, which is on the river Arlanzon, 112 miles N. of Madrid, and has considerable commerce in the exportation of the wool of Old Castile, most of which passes through this town to Bilboa. Population 9,000. 2. Salamanca, celebrated for its university, is 163 miles W.<N.\V. of Madrid, on the river Tormes, a branch of the Duero. Population 13,600. 3. Badajot, the capital of Estremadura, is in a beautiful plain on the Guadiana. It was always a place of strength and now forms an important barrier fortress on the side of Portugal, from which it is distant only 4\ miles. It was taken by storm by the British, under lord Wellington, after a memorable conflict on the 6th of April 1812. Population 14,500. 4. Toltdo is on the Tagoa, 32 miles S. S. W. of Madrid, on a rock almost surrounded by the river. Two centuries ago it is said to have contained 200,000 inhabitant*, hot the number i* now reduced lo 25,000. It was formerly celebrated for the exquisite temper of its sword blades. 5. Xtrtz d* la Fronttra, 15 milea N. N'.K. of Cadiz, contains 40,000 inhabitant*. It* environ* are celebrated for the excellent wine corruptly called Sherry. C. Eeija is beautifully situated on the west bank of the Xenil or Genii, 65 miles E. N. K. of Seville, and contain* 88,000 inhabitant*. 7. Cerriora, the capital of the province of the same name, is an old and famous city at the foot of a branch of the Sierra Morena, on the north bank of the Guadalquivir, which is navigable to this place for suutll vessels. Population 30,000. 8 Jam, the capital of the province of the same name, is 36 miles N. of Granada, and contains 27.500 inhabitants. 9. Murcia is on the Segura, in the midst of a spacious and beautiful valley containing large numbers of mulberry trees. It has an extensive establishment for twisting silk. Population 35,000.
EHvcation-] The universities of Spain, formerly 24 in number, have been gradually reduced to 11, and of these, few are either well conducted or much frequented. The antiquated system of logic and other parts of scholastic philosophy, continued to be taught until the middle of the )8tb century, and though many improvements have since been adopted the Spanish universities are still greatly behind those of France, Germany or Great Britain. There are numerous schools, many of which are connected with the monasteries; and the instruction given is replete with superstitions and antiquated notions.
Population.] The population in 1803 was 10,350,000, and it is snpposed that the number has not increased since. Spain has for a Ions; lime been one of the least populous countries in Europe. This deficiency is attributed by some to the expulsion of the Jews and Moors, to the contagious fevers in the south, to the intestine wars with the Moors carried on incessantly for 7 centuries, to the emigrations to America, and to the vast number of clergy who never marry. A more operative cause than either, and perhaps than all these, may be found in the extreme indolence of the inhabitants.
Clanti of Society.] In Spain, as in Germany, there prevail* a great deal of aristocratic pride, and a scrupulous distinction of classes. Th» nobilitv bear the titles of duke, marquis, or count, and are styled collectively, Titulodot. The gentry are called Hidalgos, a term applied lo all who are of genteel birth or whose designations, such as doctor in law, or doctor in medicine, distinguish them from the mass of agriculturists, merchants and mannlacturers. In some provinces these distinctions are little attended to, bnt in others, as in Biscay and Astoria, almost all thr inhabitants lay claim to rank.
Character.] In respect to the character of its inhabitants, Spain exhibits great variety, having been peopled from very different quarters, and the difficulty of communication between the different provinces having prevented lhnt approach to uniformity which constant intercourse would have produced. Indolence h <he rice of the inland and southern provinces; it may in fact H« termed the vice of the nation, though striking exceptions are afforded by the inhabitants of Biscay, Galicia, Valencia and above all, of Catalonia. The Caslilian is haughty, grave, distant dignified, mistrustful, and usually we'll informed and intelligent The Andalusian is lively, idle, vain, extravagant and licentious. The Galicians leave their own country, and are employed in the rest of Spain, in the lowest occupations, as in sweeping chimnies and cleaning shoes. Most of the servants are Asturians; Ibey are faithful, not very intelligent, but eiact in the performance of their duty. All the mountebanks and tumblers come from Valencia.
Manners aud Customs.] The dress of the Spaniards, formerly national and peculiar, now resembles that of the English ami French, but the cloak, the long sword and the large round hat are still occasionally worn. The favorite national amusement of bull-fighting was discouraged by government towards the close of the last century, but has since been revived. These fights take place in amphitheatres prepared for the purpoxe. The animal is first attacked by horsemen, armed with lances; then by men on foot, who carry a kind of arrow terminated like a fish-hook, which gives the animal exquisite pain, and redoubles his fury. When the bull is almost exhausted, a man, called the matador, advances with a long knife, and usually with a single blow t>rminates bis sufferings. If the animal appears deficient in spirit, a pack of dogs is let in ; several of which are commonly killed hefore their purpose is accomplished. Frequently six or eight of the horses ate killed in a single fight, and sometimes, though rarely, one or more of the !mm.m combatants. Notwithstanding the wanton cruelty of this amusement, both sexes, of every age and rank, crowd to a bull-fight day after day with enthusiasm, and gentry and noble* do not disdain to appear as combatants.
Governmtnt.\ The government of Spain was long a limited monarchy, the people being represented by their Cortes, an assembly which, though rude and constituted en principles very different from those of true representation, performed the duty of guarding the public purse, and of making known the public grievances. But after the union in the 15th century of the different provinces into one kingdom, the concentration of power in the hands of the monarch, enabled him to dispense with the Cortes, and to encroach on the privileges of the provinces; so that on the access sion of the house of Bourbon in 1701), there remained hardly *nj vestige of independence, except in Biscay The dissatisfaction and indignation of the people, excited by the conduct of the present king, led, in the beginning of 1820 to open insubordination in the army, and has produced a revolution of great importance, bj which the constitution of the Cortes, on an improved plan, is restored, and such salutary1 restraints have been imposed on the power of the crown, a« seemed best calculated for securing the rights of the people. The revolution has not been confined to changes in the form of government, but has extended te the reformation of ecclesiastical abuses, and to the abolition of the pnr
ilege formerly possessed by all persons of good family, of entailing their estates, the number of these entails being considered one of the chief causes of the backward state of the country. The title of the king of Spain is “His Catholic Majesty;” that of the heir apparent is “prince of Asturia;” the other princes of the royal family are called Infants, and the princesses Infantas. The affairs of the colonies are committed to the management of the council and chamber of the Indies, resident at Madrid. Religion.] The Catholic religion was, till 1820, the only religion tolerated in Spain. The Inquisition, which was abolished by Bonaparte during his temporary ascendency, was restored by the present king in 1814; but in 1820 it was again abolished, it is to be hoped, for ever. The clergy in Spain are excessively numerous, consisting of 8 archbishops, 61 bishops and not less than 40,000 minor clergy, distributed through 18,871 parishes. In addition to these, there were recently 2,000 monasteries containing nearly 50,000 monks, -and 1075 convents with 20,000 nuns. Part of these monasteries and convents are now (1821) abolished, and the inmates allowed a small pension for life, government having appropriated their lands to the public treasury. .Army and Navy.] The army consists at present of about 50,000 men, besides the national militia. The strength of the Spanish army has varied greatly of late years: its general character is courage in the soldiers and a want of professional knowledge in the officers. The Spanish navy suffered severely from the war with England, begun in 1796; and still more at the battle of Trafalgar in October 1805. It formerly contained 42 ships of the line, 30 frigates and numerous smaller vessels; but at present it is in a very inefficient state, and is reduced to 5 sail of the line, 10 frigates, and 65 smaller vessels. Revenue, Debt, &c.] The revenue in 1817 was about £6,000,000. The expenditure, for several years, has constantly exceeded the revenue, and frequently by more than £1,000,000. The interest on the national debt is £1,150,000. The revenue from the American mines was formerly considerable, but this source of income may now be considered as finally lost. *. .Manufactures.] Hin a country abounding with the finest wool, flourishing manufactures of that article might be expected, but such is the indolence of the Spaniards, that Spain is obliged to import a part of her woollen cloths from England and France. In like manner, nothwithstanding the productive mines of Biscay, she imports a great part of her hard-ware; so that except in Catalonia, where both silks and cottons are made in large quantities, the only manufactures conducted with spirit in Spain are the twisting of silk, the tanning of leather, and the working of Esparto grass (Spanish broom) into matts, baskets, shoes and other articles. Commerce.] The exports from Spain consist chiefly of wool, wine, brandy, fruit, olive oil, silk and salt. In return the chief imports are woollen cloth, hard-ware and cottons from England; linen from Germany and Ireland; woollens, jewelry and paper from France; naval stores from the Baltic; corn from'the Black sea and the Baltic; and salt fish from Newfoundland. The trade with Europe is almost entirely passive, being carried on principally by the British, French, Dutch, Danes, Swedes and NorthAmericans. The most important branch of Spanish commerce was, till recently, the tpade with the colonies, consisting chiefly of the import of silver and gold from the American mines, and the export of European manufactures. This commerce was carried on by the Spaniards themselves, but since the emancipation of South America it seems to be rapidly passing into the hands of the English.
Curiosity.] Montserrat, a single mountain in Catalonia, about 30 miles N. W. of Barcelona, is remarkable for its hermitages and a rich monastery of Benedictines. It is about 24 miles in circumference and rises to the height of 3,300 feet above the level of the sea. The monastery is about half way up the mountain and contains a miraculous image of the Virgin Mary, which attracts an immense number of pilgrims. All the poor who come here are fed gratis for three days ; and all the sick are received into the hospital. The monks, about 60 in number, live in a recluse manner and adhere to very rigid rules of abstinence. Higher up the mountain are 13 hermitages, each having a small chapel, a cell, a well in the rock, and a little garden. The hermits are chiefly persons of family and fortune, who have retired from the world to devote themselves to meditation and silence. A mule is sent weekly from the convent with 13 baskets of provisions, one for each of the hermits. One of the hermitages is very curiously and awfully constructed between two narrow projections of the rock, and though it is 2,500 paces distant from the monastery by the path, it impends so much over it that the music in the church below can be heard very distinctly. The scenery of the mountain has an uncommon mixture of the sublime and beautiful. The traveller meets with,delightful vallies in the midst of threatening rocks, finds shade and verdure surrounded by sterility, and sees natural cascades rushing from the steepest points of the mountain to fertilize the scattered gardens.
Islandt.] The principal Spanish islands are the Balearic islands the largest of which are Majorca, and Minorca, and the Pithyusae islands, consisting of Ivica, Formentera and several smaller islands. The two groupes, taken together, constitute the province of Majorca.
Majorca, the largest of the Balearic isles, is situated in the Mediterranean, 100 miles from the coast of Spain. It contains 1,400 square miles, nnd about 136,000 inhabitants, of whom no less than 3,700 are priests, monks or nuns. The surface is partly level and partly mountainous, the climate is mild, and the soil generally fertile, particularly in the south and east. The prinnpal productions are wine, oil, oranges, almonds tigs, and other fruit, all of whiph are cxponed. Puhiut, the capital, is a fortified town at the bott~>m of a large bay on the S. W. side of the island. It has a good harbor, and considerable trade. Population :<0.U0»>