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rapid, and unfit for navigation, being full of rocks and shoals. 2. The Guadalquiver, which drains the waters of the valley included between the Siera Nivada and the Sierra Morena. It rises in the Sierra Nivada, and in its circuitous course through Andalusia passes by Andujar, Cordova and Seville, and falls into the Atlantic ocean about 20 miles N. W. of Cadiz. It is navigable for large vessels to Seville, and for small vessels to Cordova. 3. The Guadiana, which drains the waters of the valley included between the Sierra Morena and the Sierra de Toledo. It rises in the province of La Mancha, and running westward passes by Ciudad Real, Merida and Badajoz, after which it turns to the south, and in the latter part of its course forms the boundary between Spain and Potugal. It is navigable for 40 miles from its mouth. 4. The Tagus, which drains the waters of the valley included between the Sierra de Toledo and the mountains of Castile. It rises in that part of the Iberian range which separates Aragon from New Castile, in the province of Cuenca, and passing through the provinces of Toledo and Estremadura into Portugal, discharges itself into the Atlantic 10 uniles below Lisbon, after a course of 450 miles. It is navigable only 100 miles from its mouth on account of the rocks, rapids and shallows. 5. The Duero, which drains the waters of the wide valley included between the mountains of Castile and the Cantabrian chain. It rises in the Iberian range on the borders of Aragon, and flowing to the westward traverses Old Castile and Leon, forms for some distance the boundary between Spain and Portugal and finally discharges itself into the Atlantic a little below Oporto. It is navigable only 70 miles from its mouth on account of its rapid course. The rivers of secondary importance are, 1. The Minho, which rises in the province of Galicia, near the western extremity of the Cantabrian chain, and flowing in a S. W. direction falls into the Atlantic 15 miles below Tuy, after forming for some distance the boundary between Spain and Portugal. 2. The Segura, which rises in the southern part of the Iberian range, and after traversing the province of Murcia in an easterly direction, falls into the Mediterranean 16 miles S. S. W. of Alicante. 3. The Jucar or Xucar, which rises in the Iberian range in the province of Cuenca, and flowing in a S. E. direction passes through the province of Valencia and falls into the Mediterranean. Face of the Country, Soil and Climate.] Chains of mountains intersect the country in all directions. The tracts included between the different ranges consist generally of plains, some of which are elevated, particularly in the two Castiles where they form an extensive table land several thousand feet above the level of the ocean. The soil is generally light, and where well watered very fertile, but when water fails it is dry and barren. The most fertile districts are Asturia, Fstremadura and the Mediterranean provinces, especially Andalusia and Valencia. The Climate is very various. The elevated plains in the interior are liable to piercing: winds and are unsuitable to the production of various fruits, which in Italy flourish in more northern latitudes. The provinces on the Mediterranean are often visited by a scoccnin" wind from Africa called the Solano, which lasts 10 or 12 days, and like the Sirocco of Italy, destroys, while it lasts, all the energies of body and mind.
Productions ] Grain is cultivated in all the provinces hut not always in sufficient quantities for the supply of the cooniry. la the warm climate of Granada, coffee, cotton, sugar, and cocoa are produced in abundance. Vines are cultivated in every province, but the most r.efebrated wines are those of Alicante in Valencia; Malaga, in Granada; and especially Xeres de la Frontera in SeTilie, which produces the famou* Xeres, or Sherry wine. 'I he other fruits are olives, oranges, lemons, almonds, and in the warmest provinces the pomegranate and the palm. Silk is one of the staple productions of Spain The mineral product,Cm are iron,- copper, lead, tin and quicksilver, all in abundance. The iron works of Biscay, Aragon and Astoria have been of great note for several centuries. Spain was anciently celebrated for its mines of gold and silver, but since the discovery of much richer mines in America they have not been worth working, and now lie neglected. There are indications of coal mine* m several provinces, though they are as yet wrought only in AstunaSalt forms one of the chief products of Spain, but it is obtained chiefly by the evaporation of sea-water.
Animals.] The Spanish horses are famous for their beauty and elegance of shape, particularly those ot Andalusia. The honied cattle of Andalusia are also celebrated ; but these and every species of domestic, animal are neglected except the sheep, on which great care is bestowed, and the Spanish wool has in consequence long been famous asthe finest in the world. The number of sheep in Spain is estimated at 13,000,000,of which 6,000,000 are Merinos or wandering sheep. The Merinos in winter occupy the plains of Estremadura, Andalusia and Leon, bnt in summer tliev are driven for fresh pasture to the mountainous tracts of the C-^tiles and Biscay. These migrations begin at the end of April or tlio e:irly part of May, and take place in flocks, of about lO^HJO sheep in each, conducted by about 50 shepherds, under the charge of ,i mayoral or officer of responsibility. The progress ofsnch numerous flocks is necessarily slow, a journey of 4Uu or 600 miles, requiring 30 or 35 davs. In uutumu a similar journey is requisite to bring the flocks from the high ground to the plain* Munitions of so frequent occurrence, and to so great an extent, necessarily require peculiar regulations, and have given rise to the Mesta, an association authorised by government to decide nil oil' *tions between the shepherds and the farmers through whose lin.is the migrations take place.
lnhind Communication.] Spain labours under great diswdmntmr s of inland communication. None of the large rivers »rt navigable except for a short distsneo from their months. Thr fcoads ar« also rendered difficult by (be mountainous nature of tbe country: they are food only between the large towns, the •roas roads being in general so bad as to necessitate tbe carriage of commodities on the backs of mules and horses.
Agriculture.] Agriculture is very backward in Spain. Scarcely a twelfth part of the land is cultivated and many of the finest tracts are allowed to lie waste. It is supposed that with proper care ibe soil would support three times as many inhabitants as it does at present. Tbis neglect of agriculture is attributed to various causes; partly to the badness of the roads and the want of canals, which prevent the inhabitants from bringing their produce to market; partly to the monopolies and impolitic restrictions of the government; partly to the religion, which encourages the observance of an absurd number of holiday*; and partly to the natural indolence of tbe Spaniards who hate and despise all labor. The best cultivated provinces are Biscay, Galieia, Catalonia, Valencia and a part of Granada.
Ckitf Tovns.] Madrid, the capital of Spain, is situated near the centre of the kingdom, in New Castile, on tbe small river Maneanarea, in lat. 40° 26' N. and Ion 3* 12 W. It stands on several ■mail eminences in the centre of a large plain, which is elevated 2,etX) feet above the level of the sea. It is surrounded by a high earthen wall but baa no ditch or other means of defence- Most of the streets are strait, wide, clean, well pared, and well lighted. There are numerous squares adorned with statues and fountains but the moat distinguished is the Plaza Mayor, which forma a regular oblong in tbe centre of the eity, 1,536 feet in circuit and inclosed by I e)6 bouses, all uniform and fife stories high, with balconies and porticoes supported by pillars. This is tbe scene of the bull-fights and public executions. The most remarkable public building is the royal palace at the west end of the town, which is of a square form, presenting feur fronts of 404 feet each, and is 80 feet in height, and incloses in the middle a court 120 feet square. It is strongly built; its walls are thick, its foundations deep, its pillars strong, and every room is vaulted, no wood being admitted into its construction- It is elegantly ornamented on tbe outside, and in the interior are many spacious apartments, and a large collection of paintings by the best masters of Flanders, Italy and Spain. The chief defect is the want of gardens. Of the public walks of Madrid, the principal is the Prado, which makes so conspicuous a figure in Spanish romances and plays. It runs along the east and north sides of tbe city, and is planted with trees. Madrid enjoys almost always a cloudless sky, and a pure and serene atmosphere, but the air is extremely keen, owing to tbe elevated situation, and produces very severe effects on weak constitutions. Madrid has little trade and prospers chiefly from tbe presence of the court. The population is estimated at 168.000.
Cadis, in the province of Seville, stands on the island of Leon at the extremity of a long tongue of land which projects in a N. W. direction. The town is walled, and on three sides strrrounded by the sea, while strong fortifications across the isthmus secure it from attack by land. The bay of Cadiz is a vast basin, inclosed between the continent and the projecting tongue of land, and is one of the finest bays in the world, being more than 30 miles in circumference, with excellent anchoring ground, while trie neighboring mountains protect it to a considerable extent from the winds. It is defended by four forts, and is the grand rendezvous of the Spanish navy. On an island in the bay there are 12 docks, and a grand arsenal with ample supplies of naval stores. The streets are narrow, but clean, well paved and well lighted. The town and the country-seats in its neighborhood make a beautiful appearance from the harbor. The manufactures of Cadiz are insignificant but the commerce is very extensive. It has long been the principal commercial town in Spain, and particularly the centre of trade with America and the West Indies. Large quantities of salt are made in the neighborhood for exportation. The population is estimated at 70.000 souls, many of whom are Irish, Italian, French, English and Dutch.
Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia, and one of the most flourishing cities in Spain, is a strongly fortified town on the shore of the Mediterranean on a plain, encircled at a short distance by bills in the form of an amphitheatre. The harl>or is deep, spacious and secure, but difficult of entrance. The commerce of Barcelona is more extensive than that of any city In Spain except Cadiz. The manufactures consist of silk, cotton and woollen goods, shoes, glass, cutlery and fire-arms, all of which are exported in considerable quantities, together with wine and brandy. Among the principal imports are corn, cod-fish and rice. The population, including the suburbs, is estimated at 140,000.
Valencia, the capital of the province of the s<nne name, stand* on the Guadalaviar about a mile and an half from its mouth, io the midst of a fertile and beautiful country, which is every where crowded with villages and orchards. It has no harbor, bat only a bad road without anchorage or shelter- Vessels seldom approach nearer than half a league, and receive and discharge their cargoes by means of boats. The city is chiefly noted for * its silk manufactures, which are among the most extensive in Europe, giving employment to 25,000 persons and consuming yearly 900,000 lbs. of raw silk. The trade of the town is extensive, notwithstanding its unfavorable situation, and the population, is estimated at more than 100,<*00.
Seville stands in a large circular plain, on the left side of the Guadalquivir, 54 miles from its mouth, in the midst of a country well cultivated and adorned with villas and orchards. It is the most extensive city in Spain, and is said to have bad formerly when in possession of the Moors, a population of 400,UOO souk. It is surrounded by an old wall, 5 or 6 miles in circumference, and containing 166 turrets. After the discovery of America, Seville was invested with the monopoly of the trade between that country and Spain, but the difficulty of navigating the Guadalquivir with large vess els, led to it* transfer to Cadiz. Vessels. drawing more than 10 feet water are obliged to unload 8 miles below Seville, and the largest vessels stoo, at the north of the river. The manufactures of silk, lea her, and some other articles, is carried on to a considerable extent. Here also is . the royal tobacco manufactory, which supplies the whole kingdom with cigars, snuff and tobacco, and gives employment to 1,500 persons and 190 horses or mules. The population of Seville is est mated at 100.00). Granada, a celebrated city in the province of the same name, is romantically situated on the river Xenil or Genil, 123 miles E. of Seville, on two hills at the extremity of an immense plain surrounded by lofty mountains. The town makes a fine appearance to the approaching traveller, the houses rising one above another, with turrets and gilded cupolas, and the whole crowned by the Alhambra, or palace of the ancient Moorish kings, and in the back ground the Sierra Nivada covered with snow; but on entering the gates this grandenr disappears; the streets are found to be narrow and irregular, and the buildings bear visible marks of decay. The Alhambra however still retains much of its ancient magnificence and is the grand ornament of the city. Its chambers are all paved with marble, and ornamented with marble pillars. The population of Granada is estimated at 67,000. They are employed chiefly in manufacturing silk stuffs, woollen goods and other articles. Malaga, celebrated for its wines, is situated on the coast of Granada, at the bottom of a deep bay, with a large plain to the north, while on the east and west it is sheltered by lofty mountains, whose sides are covered with vineyards and plantations of olive, almond, orange and lemon trees. The harbor is easy of entrance, perfectly sheltered from all winds, sufficiently capacious to contain about 400 ships, and so deep that vessels of the largest burden can come up close to the quays. The town is fortified and contains 52,000 inhabitants. Saragossa, the capital of Aragon, stands in an extensive and fertile plain on the right bank of the Ebro, which here receives the Guerva, a considerable stream, from the south, and the Gallego, which has its source in the Pyrenees, from the north. Without being regularly fortified it is surrounded by an earthen wall, and is entered by 12 gates. The houses are built throughout of brick. It contains 55,000 inhabitants and a university founded in 1478. Saragossa is celebrated for its dreadful sieges by the French in 1808 and 1809, in which the Spaniards displayed the most unyielding fortitude. Pampeluna, the capital of Navarre, is situated on the Arga, a branch of the Ebro. It stands partly on an eminence and partly on a plain, and is surrounded by mountains at the distance of 6 or 8 miles. The town is walled and has two citadels, and has long been accounted one of the principal strong holds in the north of Spain. Population, 14,000. Bilboa, the capital of Biscay proper, is on a small river a out 6 miles from the sea. It has a spacious harbor, and carries or