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in the power of laying the country on one side under water, and! of resisting assailant? on the other from fortified heiglit-.' '1 he harbor is form id l>y the mouth cf Ihe Vistula, and is also defended) by forts. The commerce of Dant/.ic is very extensive, and consists chiefly in the export of corn, potash, limber, hemp, flax, kc from Prussia and Poland, and the import of merchandise from all parts of Europe. The population is 52,821.
Cologne, in the province of Cleves-Berg, is situated in a flat eouniry, on the left bank of the Khine,and is built in the form of a crescent, close to the river. The walls have a number ot towers, and form a circuit of nearly 7 miles The streets are in general narrow, winding and gloomy, and the houses ill-built. Cologne carries on considerable commerce, and is celebrated for the manufacture of the famous Cologne water. The population ia 64,938.
Magdeburg, in the province of Saxony, is situated in a very beautiful, though flat country, on both sides of the Elbe. It is one of the strongest fortresses in Germany, and in the citadel, which stands on an island in the river, are shown the cells where baron Trenck and La Fayette were successively confined. The manufactures of Magdeburg furnish the basis of a flourishing trade. The population in 1817 was 35.448.
Jlix-la-ChapelU, celebrated for its warm baths, and for two treaties of peace concluded here, is in the province of the Lower Rhine, 3C miles W. S. VV. of Cologne. It was long the favorite residence of Charlemagne, and for some time the capital of hit empire. It is now distinguished for the manufacture of fine broad cloth and needles. The population is 32,300.
Stettin, on the left hank of the Oiler, 00 miles from its month, carries on an extensive trade, consisting principally of the expert of the manufactures of Silesia, and <he import of colonial goods and foreign fabrics required by that province as well a* by Berlin and some other towns in Brandenburg. Vessels of more than 100 tons are obliged to stop at Swinemunde, at the mouth of the river. The population is 25,000.
Potsdam is 15 miles VV. S. W of Berlin, on the noith bank of the Havel, which here spreads its waters in one expanse after another, like a succession of small lakes. Potsdam is to Berlin what Versailles is to Paris, having been since the close of the 17th century, the 0(ca«iona! residence of the court, but indebted for its chief improvements to Frederick II. The streets are regular and spacious, and in some of them the houses resemble row* ol palaces. The royal palace on the bank of the Havel is a magnificent structure. The town is surrounded by a wall and ditch; the population in 1818 was 23,642.
Halle, in the province of Saxony, on both sides of the Saale, 66 miles S. by K. of Magdeburg, is chiefly celebrated for its literary institutions, particularly its university. In one of the sul-tir*» m the orphan-house, and Canstein's estaMishmi nt for printing the Scriptures, erected in 1712, which is said to have produced aiuc* that time nearly 1,000,000 testaments, and 2,000,000 bibles. Population. Including the suburbs 25,000. Frankfort-on-the-Oder is a place of considerable trade, having three annual fairs. It contains 15,453 inhabitants. Elbing, near the mouth of the Nogat or eastern arm of the Vistula, 30 miles S. E. of Dantzic, exports large quantities of Prussian and Polish produce. It contains 18,000 inhabitants. Stralsund is a commercial town on the strait which separates the island of Rugen from the main land, and contains 15,876 inhabitants Erfurt, on the Gera, 12 miles W. of Weimar, is in a territory almost detached from the rest of the Prussian dominions, and contains 18,000 inhabitants. Wittenberg, on the Elbe, 60 miles N. of Dresden, is celebrated as the residence of Martin Luther, and in one of the churches lie his remains and those of Melancthon. Naumburg, 28 miles W. S. W. of Leipsic, has two yearly fairs. Population 12,000. Coblentz is in a delightful country at the confluence of the Moselle and Rhine, opposite the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein. The situation is highly favorable for trade, as it has a direct intercourse with France by the Moselle, and with Germany and Switzerland by the Rhine. The population is 10,500. Dusseldorf, on the Rhine, 20 miles below Cologne, contains 19,000 inhabitants. Munster, on the small river Aa. about 6 miles from its junction with the Ems, contains 14,000 inhabitants. Treves, on the Moselle, has 12,750 inhabitants. Bonn, on the Rhine, 14 miles above Cologne, has a university established in 1818 and 10,000 inhabitants. Cleves, in the province of Cleves-Berg, is a nearly built town 24 miles from the west bank of the Rhine, containing 5,000 inhabitants. i. 20 miles N. E. of Cologne, is extensively engaged in manufactures of various kinds. Population 18,000. Posen the capital of the province of the same name, is on the Warta, 144 miles E. of Berlin, and contains 22,700 inhabitants. Thorn, on the Vistula, 70 miles S. of Dantzic. is famous as the birth-place of Copernicus. It contains 9,000 inhabitants. Education.) In respect to the cultivation of literature, Prussia holds a high rank among the European states. There is an academy of sciences at Berlin, established by Frederick II. and associations of a similar nature, but on a smaller scale, are established in most of the great towns. The most celebrated universities are at Halle, Berlin, Breslau and Konigsberg; and in many other towns there are colleges or higher schools for instruction in mathematics and the ancient and modern languages. The elementary schools in Brandenburg, Saxony, and part of Prussia proper are numerous and in general well conducted. Population and Religion.] The population of the Prussian states, in 1818, according to Hassel was 10,154,549, of which number 50,800 were in Newfchatel, and 250,000 in the army. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran, but that of the royal family is Calvinistic. All sects enjoy equal rights. The number of the principal denominations a few years since, was as follows ; Lu
thernns 6,100,000, Calvinists 350,000, Catholics, 3,500,000, Jews T5,0U0. In the year 1817 the Lutherans and Calvinists of the Prussian states agreed to lay aside their distinguishing appellations, and to unite in one body under the name of Evangelical Chris* tian* This praiseworthy example will probably be followed in several of the Protestant states.
Government. | Prussia had formerly a representative body under the nime of -"Sates The powers and privileges of the nobility were also very extensive. By degrees the power of the crown, acting with the vigor of unity and concentration, reduced that of the aristocracy; "nd the sovereign found means to conduct the public business without the intervention of states, so that the government during the 18th century was an absolute monarchy. Recently, however, the people have manifested an anxious desire for the restoration of the states, and this has been promised by the king, but as yet (1820) nothing satisfactory has been done.
Debt. Revenue and Jlrmy.] The public debt amounts to abont £40.000.000 sterling. The revenue is about £6,000,000. The army exceeds 150.000 men, but the whole number of men connected with the military establishment, according to Hassel, is 250.000.
Manufactures.] The manufactures have been patronized to an extraordinary extent by the governmeni. and are in a very flourish? ing condition. Many articles are produced in greater abundance than is necessary for the supply ofihe country, and furnish a large surplus for exportation. The most industrious provinces are Cleves-Berg, Silesia, Brandenburg, Saxony and some parts of Westphalia. The principal manufactures are linen, of which Silesia alone produces to the value of several million dollars ; woollen goods, for which Silesia is also the most distinguished ; and iron ware, uhich is the staple in Cleves-Berg. Besides these three principal articles,there are cotton goods, leather, tobacco, and numerous others of less imporance. Berlin is more distinguished for its manufactures than any other city, and is particularly famous for silk, porcelain and cotton goods.
Commerce.] The situation of Prussia on the Baltic, the many navigable rivers and canals by which it is traversed, and the fine roads which connect the principal towns in the interior, are very favorable to commerce. The foreign trade, however, is not extensive, but there is a very active internal commerce. The principal seaports are Pantzic, Stettin, Konigsberg, Elbing and Stralsund. The principal places of trade in the interior are Berlin, Breslau, Magdeburg. Aix la-Chapelle, Coblentz, Cologne, Monster, Naumburg and Frankfort-on-the-Oder. The exports are linen, corn, wool, timber, pitch, tar, potash, &c and the value of the whole may be estimated on an average at £7,000,000 or £8.000,000. The principal trade is with Great Britain.
hland.] The island of Rugen is opposite Stralsund on the coast of Pomerania, from which it is separated by a channel about a mile broad. It contains 360 square miles and 28,000 inhabitants, and formerly belonged to Sweden, but was ceded to Prussia in 1814.
Siuation and Extent.] Spain is bounded N. by the bay of Bis. eay ; N. E. by France, from which it is separated by the Pyrenees; E. by the Mediterranean; S. by the Mediterranean and the Atlantic; W. by Portugal and the Atlantic. It extends from 36° to 43° 47' N. lat. and from 9° 13' W to 3° 15' E. lon. The area is estimated at 182,000 square miles.
Divisions.] Spain is at present divided into 31 provinces. The names of several of the old divisions, however, are still in Conninon use.
Both are given in the following table.
Provinces. Square miles. Population. Pop. on a sq. m.
1. Seville, 9,080 746,200 82
Andalusia. §§ 3. ... 252,000 60 .
Capes.] The most noted capes are cape Ortegal and cape Finisterre in the N. W.; cape Trafalgar near the strait of Gibraltar in the S. W. ; and capes Gata, Palo, Nao, Oropesa, Tortosa, and St. Sebastian, on the coast of the Mlediterranean.
Mountains.] The Pyrenees form the boundary between Spain and France. All the other mountain ranges in Spain spring from the Pyrenees in the following manner. The Cantabrian chain runs west, parallel with the northern coast, separating Biscay from Navarre and Asturia from Leon, and termiates at Cape Finisterre. Near the middle of the Cantabrian chain (about lon. 4° 15 W.) the Iberian range separates from it, and stretching at first to the S. E. and then to the south divides Aragon from the two Castiles, and extends under various names in a long irregular line all the way to rape Gata in the province of Granada, while short branches are thrown off from it towards the east which terminate at cape Palo and cape Oropesa. From the Iberian range four great chains proceed in a W. S. W. direction, parallel with each other, to the Atlantic ocean. The most northerly of these four chains is called the Mountains of Castile. They run near the boundary between the two Castiles and along the northern frontier of Estremadura into Portugal, where they take the name of Sierra de Estrella, and terminate at cape la Roca a little west of Lisbon. The second chain is the Sierra de T.ledo, which proceeds through the southern part of New Castile and Estremadura into Portugal, and terminates at cape Espichel a little south of Lisbon. The third chain is the Sierra Morena, which commences on the eastern boundary of the province of La Mancha, proceeds along the northern frontier of Andalusia, and terminates at cape St. Vincent, the S. W. extremity of Portugal. The fourth chain is the Sierra Nivada, which is principally confined to the province of Granada, and terminates on the coast of the Mediterranean in various points, the most southern of which is the rock of Gibraltar. The highest single mountains of Spain are in the Sierra Nivada, the loftiest summit of which is 12,762 feet above the level of the sea. The highest mountain on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees is 7,518 feet, and the highest summit of the Iberian range 6,861 feet above the level of the sea. The Sierra de Toledo and the Sierra Morena are low ranges, being no where higher than 2,700 feet.
Rivers.] The course of the rivers is determined by the direction of the mountain ranges. No large river falls into the bay of Biscay, the Cantabrian chain forming a barrier along the whole northern coast. The great rivers are, 1. The Ebro, in the northeast, which drains the waters of the valley included between the Pyrenees and the Iberian chain. It rises in the province of Toro, near the point where the Iberian range separates from the Cantabrian, and running in a S. E. direction, divides Alava and Navarre from Burgos and Soria, flows through Aragon and Catalonia, and discharges itself into the Mediterranean, near cape Tortosa. The principal towns which it passes in its course are Tudela, Saragossa and Tortosa. The river is in general very