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XXI. The Principality of Lichtenstein lies on the Rhine before it enters the lake of Constance, and is bounded on the E. and S. by the Austrian territories. It contains 55 square miles and 6,540 inhabitants.

FREE CITIES.

1 Hamburg, the greatest commercial city in Germany, stands on the north bank of the Elbe, about 80 miles from its mouth. The Kibe, expanded by the tide, is here from 3 to 6 miles broad, and receives from the north the Alster, which flows into it, after forming a basin and several islands within the city. Hamburg covers a large extent of ground, but nearly a third of the space included by the walls is occupied by canals, piers, and the basin formed by the Alster; The streets of the town are narrow, crowded and irregular, and the houses awkward and old-fashioned. Several manufactures are prosecuted here to a great extent, particularly the refining of sugar, and the printing of cotton, linen and handkerchiefs. The foreign trade extends to almost every part of the world. The internal trade, by means of the Elbe, extends to Saxony, and even to Bohemia. There is also a canal from the Alster to the Trave, which opens a communication with the Baltic.

The established religion in Hamburg is Lutheran, but complete toleration prevails. The government is an aristocracy, checked by the authority of the citizens at large. The aristocratic part consists of tlio, senate, to the number of 28, who receive an annual salary, and constitute the executive power. They have no hereditary right, but they have the privilege of electing their own members. The citizens act by delegation. The senate alone can prppose a law, its adoption or rejection rests with the representatives of the citizens. The territory of Hamburg contains 140 square miles It consists of the citv and a small district lying around it, of the town and bailiwic of Cuxhaven, at the mouth of the Elbe, and several villages scattered in the dutchy of Holstein. The population is 129,800, of whom 115,000 are within the city. Hamburg is connected with Frankfort, Lubeck and Bremen, in some commercial regulations ; and they still retain the old name oi Hanse-towns.

2. Bremen is 54 miles S. W. of Hamburg, on the Weser, by which it is divided into two parts, called the old and new towns, both of which are fortified. The harbor is at a place called ElfsJeth, 6 miles nearer the sea. The trade of Bremen is extensive, and is in part founded on its manufactures of refined sugar, cotton and woollen cloths, &c. but chiefly on the exportation of the produce of the countries lying on the Weser, and the importation of such foreign goods as find a market in these parts of Germany. The territory of Bremen contains 77 square miles, and 48,500 inhabitants, of whom 37,700 are within the city.

3. Frankfort-on-lhe-Maine, now the permanent seat of the Germanic diet, is situated on both sides of the Maine, about 20 miles above its influx into the Rhine. Frankfort was formerly fortified, but most of its outworks are now converted into gardens and promenades. The commerce of the town is very extensive, and is greatly promoted by the navigation of the Rhine and Maine, as well as by the two great fairs held here annually in spring and autumn, at which merchandise of all kinds, and from all parts of Europe are offered for sale. The territory of Frankfort contains 110 square miles, and 47,850 inhabitants, of whom 41,000 are within the city. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran. There are, however. 8,000 or 9,900 Jews, who formerly lived in a separate quarter of the city, blocked up at one end, and regularly shut at night, but they are now allowed to live in other parts of the town, though not yet entirely exempted from vexatious treatment.

4. Lubeck is 36 miles N. E. of Hamburg, on the Trave, a navigable river which joins the Baltic about 8 miles below. Its harbor is properly at Travemonde, at the mouth of the river, where ships drawing more than 10 feet water discharge part of their «argo. The trade of Lubeck consists chiefly in the export of corn from the adjoining country, and the import of wine and British manufactures; the whole to no great amount, Hamburg having great advantages, from its easier access to the ocean, and more extensive communication with the interior. The territory of Labeck contains 120 square miles, and 40,650 inhabitants, of whom -5,50 J are in the city. The prevailing religion hi the Lutheran.

PRUSSIA.

Situation and Extent.] The Prussian states consist principally •of two territories, entirely detached from each other. The eastern and much the largest division is bounded N. by the Baltic; E by Russia and the new kingdom of Poland; S. by Austria, the kingdom of Saxony, and the Saxe dutchies; and W. by HesaeCassel, Hanover, Brunswick, and Mecklenburg. The western division is bounded N. by the Netherlands and Hanover; E. by Waldeck, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt, and the Bavarian circle of the Rhine; S. by France, and VV. by the Netherlands There is besides, the canton of Neufchatel in Switzerland, which is subject to Prussia. The eastern division contains 87,169 square miles, the western division 18,271, and the canton of Neufchatel 330; in all, 105,770.

Divisions.] Prussia was divided, by a decree of 20th April 1815, into 10 provinces, each of which is again subdivided into two or unore governments, which derive their names from their chief towns. The number of governments is 28, and each is subdivided into 8, 10, 12 or more districts.

Provinces. Sq. miles. Population. Pop. on a sq. m. Chief towns. 1. East Prussia, 15,884 855,244 54 Konigsberg. 2. West Prussia, 10,373 560,128 54 Dantzic. 3. Brandenburg, 15,471 1,191,121 77 Berlin. 4. Pomerania, 12,815 665,836 52 Stettin. 5. Silesia, 15,400 2,017,057 f;1 Breslau, 6. Posen, 7,040 544,641 77 Posen. 7. Saxony, 10,186 1,148,041 112 Magdeburg. 8. Westphalia, 7,832 991,899 127 Munster, 9. Cleves & Berg, 3,773 908,185 240 Cologne, 1:0

. Lower Rhine, 6,666 971,597 146 Aix-la-Chapelle. - 105,440 9,853,749 93 Add Neufchatel, 330. 50,800 154

Total, 105,770 9,904,519 94

Face of the Country.] The eastern division forms an extensive plain, skirted on its southern border by the high Sudetic mountains in Silesia, and in the province of Saxony by the Thuringerwald and the Hartz. The western division is traversed by ranges of rough hills and mountains, particularly in the part on the east side of the Rhine. Along the coast of the Baltic, in Pomerania, the land is so low that dikes are necessary to protect the country from inundation.

Sea-coast.] The Baltic washes the northern eoast for more than 400 miles, and in this distance receives several considerable rivers. At the mouths of all the principal rivers there are large lakes or bodies of fresh water called Huffs, which communicate with the Baltic through narrow straits. The first is the Kurische Haff, on the coast of Fast Prussia at the mouth of the Niemen. It is 70 miles long and 30 broad, and is separated from the Baltic by a long narrow tract of land, but communicates with it through a narrow strait at Memel. 2. The Frische Huff, at the mouth of the Vistula, is 70 miles long and 14 broad, and communicates with the Baltic through a narrow strait at Pillau. 3. The Haff. sometimes called the Stettin Haff on the coast of Pomerania, at the mouth of the Oder, communicates with the Baltic through three straits formed by the islands of Wolin and Usedom and the shore.

Rivers.] The principal rivers, beginning in the east, are. 1. The Niemen or Memel, which rises in Russia, and flowing N. of W. discharges itself into the Kurische Haff through two mouths. 2. The Vistula, which rises in Austrian Silesia, in the Carpathian mountains, and after passing by the free city of Cracow, flows: through Galicia and the new kingdom of Poland, and enters Prussia aear the city of Thorn, whence it proceeds in a northerly di

rection till it divides itself into two arms; the eastern arm undei the name of the Nogat, falls into the Frische Huff neai tiling, while the western divides itself into two m w arms, one of which, turning to the right, discharges itself also into the Frischt- haff, and the other turning to the left, passes by Danizig to tbe ba.uc Its most important tributaries, are the Drewertz, which join* a 4 miles above Thorn, and the Brake, which falls into it a little below that city. 3. The Oder, which is almost w holly a Prussian river, rises in Moravia, and flowing in a N. W direction through Silesia, firandenbuBg.and Pomerania, discharges itself into the Haff or Stettin Haff, after a course of 400 miles, during nearly he whole of which it is navigable- It passes by Ratibi>r, Oppein, Breslau, Frankfort, Custrin and Stettin. Its principal tributary is the Warta or Warthe, which rises near the free city of Cracow, and after running at first in a northerly direction through the new

kingdom of Poland, turns to the west and entering Prussia, |

through the provinces of Posen and Brandenburg, receive* the JVetze and discharges itself into the Oder at Custrin. 4. '1 he Llbt comes from Saxony and flowing through the kingdom in a N. W. direction passes into Hanover, after having receued in its progress the Schwartz Elster or Black Elster; the Mulde, which join* it in Anhalt; the Saale, one of whose tributaries is the hhiie Kilter; and the Havel, whose principal tributary is the Spree, which rises in the eastern part of the kingdom of Saxon\, and flowing north passes by Berlin and joins the Havel at Spandau. 5. The Rhine passes from S. E. to N. W. through the heart of the great western division of Prussia, and in its progress receive* the A'ahe; the Moselle, which comes Irom France and being1 joined by the Sarre near Treves, falls into the Rhine at Cobleniz; the Sieg, which joins it two miles below Bonn; the Ruhr and the Lippe.

The otherconsiderable rivers are. the Pregcl,* navigable si ream, which falls into the Frische Haff, a little hehw Konigsherg; tbe Stolpe, the Wipper and the Persante, which fall directly into ihe Baltic, between the mouths of the Vistula and the O.ler after a short course; and the Ucker, which falls into the Haff or Mettin Haffat Uckermunde.

Canals.] The principal canals are, 1. The Brombcrg canal, 20 miles long,which connects the Brahe with the JSelze, and thus opens a communication between the Vistula and ihe Oder. I. The Frederick-William or Mullrose canal, 15 miles lonsr, which begins at Newbruck on the Spree and terminates en the Oder, n tittle above Frankfort, and thus connecis the Oder with the Elbe. 3. Tbe Fino-w canal, 24 miles long, which connects the Oder with the Havel. 4. The Flatten atrial, which connecis the Havel with the Elbe, and shortens the navigation between Berlin and Magdeburg.

Soil and Productions.] The soil in the eastern division is for the most part sandy and covered with heath, but there are *l»« along the coasls and rivers rich marshes and fertile low land*. The western division has many tract- in the highest degree fertile, intermixed with others that arc rocky and barren. In most of

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the provinces the soil is highly cultivated, but in others, particularly in those east of the Oder, the agriculture admits of much improvement. Wheat, oats, barley and potatoes are raised in sufficient quantity for the supply of the conntry. Flax, hemp and tobacco are also cultivated, but not to such an extent as to prevent importation. The vine flourishes in the western division, along the banks of the Rhine, the Moselle and the Nahe. Cattle and sheep are raised in almost all the provinces, but the horses for the cavalry are imported from Russia and Holstein. Westphalia has long been celebrated for its hams, and Pomerania for its poultry. In the mountainous districts of the western provinces and in the Hartz are found iron, copper, lead, silver and other minerals. Salt from brine springs is also abundant in some parts of Prussian Saxony. Chief Towns.] Berlin, the capital of the Prussian states, and the residence of the king, is situated in a sandy plain on both sides of the Spree, and is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. The circumference of its walls is 11 miles. The streets are for the most part broad and straight, and the squares regular and spacious, and adorned with numerous elegant buildings. Berlin is indebted for its chief embellishments to the celebrated Frederick II: who is supposed to have expended yearly in the improvement of the city 400,000 dollars. Among the most remarkable public buildings is the royal castle, which is 430 feet long and 276 broad. In it is the king's library, which contains upwards of 200,000 volumes. The city is highly distinguished for its manufactures : the principal articles are silk, woollen, linen and cotton goods, jewelry, porcelain, &c. The number of manufacturers in the various establishments is about 16,000, of which number nearly 3,000 are in the extensive silk manufactories, and 500 in the royal porcelain manufactory. The population has greatly increased during the last 150 years; in 1661 it was only 6,500; in 1818 it was 182,387, or including the military 188,485. Breslau, the capital of Silesia, stands on the left bank of the Oder, at the influx of the small river Ohlau which runs through the town. It is surrounded with strong walls and other fortifications. Breslau is the centre of trade for the whole of Silesia, and the manufactures of the town employ several thousand workmen. Four fairs are held here annually. The population, including the military, is 76.813. Konigsberg, the chief town in East-Prussia, is on the Pregel, 4 miles from its mouth. The river flows from east to west, and approaches the city in two arms, which join and form a small oblong island. On this island is built a part of the city, and the rest stands opposite to it, on the north bank of the river. The houses have their foundations on piles as at Amsterdam. Konigsberg is connected with the interior by the Pregel, and carries on a considerble trade with foreign countries. The population is 63,239. Dantzic, an opulent commercial city of West Prussia, is situated on the left bank of the Vistula, about 5 miles from its mouth. It is surrounded with ramparts, but a more effectual defence consists

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