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rsere to the Alps. The vine also grows here luxuriantly The tract S. E. of this line is called the olive climate. It is much the smallest, and hoth vines and maize grow here abundantly. This division of France, which, with here and there a set-off, is strictly accurate, points out the eastern side of the kingdom as ££ degree* of latitude hotter than the western, Of at least more favorable te vegetation.
Soil and Productions.'] The northwestern section of the kingdom, including the country on both sides of the Loire below Tours, and extending on the coast almost from the mouth of the Garonne to that of the Seine, has a poor and stony soil. The northern section, which corresponds nearly with the eastern half of the northern climate, has a rich soil, of considerable depth acdof an admirable texture. The soil of the southwestern section is indifferent, except in the valley of the Garonne and its branches, where it consists of a deep, mellow, friable loam, with sufficien: moisture for any culture.- The eastern section, extending from the Netherlands to the Mediterranean, has a fertile soil, but is less uniformly rich than the northern.
'The principal agricultural productions of the northern half of the kingdom are wheat, barley, oats, pulse, and of late in a greater degree than formerly of potatoes; in the southern half, maize, vines, mulberries, and olives. The cultivation of the vine is carried to a very great extent, the number of acres covered by tb* vineyards being computed at nearly ft,000.00o, or one twenty fifth part of the whole kingdom. The olive has recently suffered from Severe wintersand the produce is scaicely one quarter of its former amount. The most important mineral is iron, which » produced in France in greater quantity than in any other country except Great Britain. Coal also exists in great quantities and the mines are very extensively wrought.
Chief Towns. ] Paris, the capital of France and one of the finest cities in the world, is situated on the Seine, which panes through the city from east to west dividing it into two nearly equal parts. It is surrounded with a wall 17 miles in circuit. The houses are generally from 4 to 7 storie* high, and built of freestone. Some of the streets are remarkably broad and beautiful. The Boulevards particularly, which occupy the space appropriated to the walls of the town in former ages, when its circumference did not exceed seven miles, are from 200 to 300 feet broad, and planted on each side with long rows of lofty trees. AH the streets are lighted with reflecting lamps, suspended at a great height in the middle of the street. The finest square is the Place Vendome, an octagonal space 500 feet long and 400 broad, surrounded by elegant stone buildings. In palaces and public structures of the first rank Paris is greatly superior to London. The Tuileries, the present royal residence, is a noble and venerable structure extending from N. to S. above 1,000 feet The Lsuvre, a quarter of a mile to the east of the Tuileries, is an elegant building of a square form, with a large interior court, 400 teat by 400, and its magnificent halls are used not as a royal habi
nation, but as a depot for objects of taste and art. The gallery of the Louvre is a very Ions' range, detached from the main building, and extending parallel to tin- bank of the river, all the way to the Tuileries. The most "Inking public monument u the Column of the Place Vendumc, erected by Bonaparte to commemorate his successes in Germany in 1805. It is a great brazen pillar, It fret in diameter and 133 feet high, and every where covered with baa reliefs. The catacombs are subterraneous quarries, excavated is the course of ages for the building of Paris, and converted in the latter part of the 18th century into a great burying repository. They are of great extent and being easily traversed with the aid of a guide, form a prominent object of attention to travellers.
The Jardin des Plantea is a garden of an oblong form, nearly half a mile in length, laid out with great taste, and exhibiting groopes of plants of almost every country in the world. Amidst «he collections of interest to artists, those of the Louvre bold the tir«t rank. Of the ground floor of that spacious building a great part is appropriated to statues, and other specimens of sculpture, ancient and modern, distributed in spacious hatis, and arranged with much taste. From these a magnificent staircase leads to the gallery of paintings, which is of such length, that the extremity is almost lost in the distance, and is lined on both sides with the finest productions of modem painters
Paris is the centra of elegant amusements for France, even more than London for England, being (he residence during the autumn and winter of all who can afford the gratifications of a town life. Of the public gardens and walks the finest and most frequented are those of the Tuileries, which extend in a beautiful oblong to the westward of the palace. Thi-v are laid out most elegantly with gravelled wilks, terraces, plots of dowers and shrubs, groves of lofty trees, basins of water, and fountains, interspersed with beautiful statues of bronze and marble. This delightful spot form* the favorite walk of the Parisians, and is crowded on Sundays during tbe day, and in the rest of the week in the evenings with well dressed persons.
Paris is rich in libraries, which are accessible to all persons without introduction. The library of the king, the largest in Europe, contains upwards of 360,000 printed volumes, and 72,000 manuscripts. The manufactures of Paris as of London, consist chiefly of articles of taste, and such as require nice workmanship. The population of the city in 1817 was 715,000.
Lyont, the next town to Paris in population, and superior to it in commerce and manufactures, is situated on tbe tongue of land formed at tbe confluence of the Saonc and the Khone. The streets cross each other regularly nt right angles, lint they are in general extremely narrow and many of them dark and gloomy. The houses are usually of stone, and 5 or G stories high. There are 4 public squares, one of which is entitled to rank among the finest in Europe Lyons is the first manufaclurng town «ia France, and is particularly noted for its silks. It formerly *«•• plied a great part of Europe with silk goods, but its manufactures were greatly injured during the troubles of the French revolution. The number of looms for velvet, silk, gauze, crape and thread, was at the commencement of the revolution 9,335, and the persons employed 58,600; in 1803 there were 7,000 looms, but only 1,653 at work. The large manufactory of felt hats, whirh formerly employed 8,000 hands, had fallen to 1.500. Within a few years the 6ne silk manufactures have begun to resume their former importance. The orders for goods in 1818 could scarcely be answered, and the quantity exported in that year was valued a: 60.000,000 francs. The merchants of Lyons carry on trade with Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Netherlands and almost every part of Europe. The population is estimated at 120,000
Marseilles is situated on the Mediterranean, at the foot of a ridge of hills, which extend in the form of a cre«cent around the town and its environs Until each extremity reaches 'he sea. It is divided into th>- Old and New Town ; the latter, containing nearly two thirds of the whole, is equal in beauty to any city of France. The port, which is half a mile long and a quarter of a mile broad, occupies the centre of the town, and communicates with the sea by a narrow entrance, only 100 iards wide, defended by two forts: it is complete!) sheltered from all winds, but has not depth enough for ships of war. From its advantageous position and the security of its harhor, Marseilles has long enjoyed a large share of the foreign trade of France. The population is estimated at 110,000.
Bourdeaux is on the left bank of the Garonne, 47 miles from its mouth. The river here form* a spacious harbor, and the tide rises to the height of 12 feet, so that large merchant vessels and even frigates can come up close to the town. The internal commerce, carried on through the Garonne and Dordogne is very extensive, and the foreign trade exceeds that of any city in Franc*, except Marseilles. The principal exports are wine and brandy. The population is 92,374.
Rouen, situated on the right bank of ihe Seine, 70 miles from its mouth, in the midst of a pleasant and fertile country, is one of the principal manufacturing Towns in France, especially in the article of Cotton goods. The population is estimated at 87,000. Nantts is beautifully situated orr the right bank of the Loire, 27 miles from its mouth. It' has numerous nianufactures and considerable foreign and inland trade, with a population of 77,000.
Cherbourg is a seaport on the north coast, at the bottom of a large hay between Capes La Hogue and Barfleur, in the department of La Mariche. It has long been considered one of the most important Mations of the French na\y, and its improvement has from time to time, occupied the attention of the government for no less than'a century and a half. More than two millions sterling were expended in an attempt to erect a breakwater against the swell of the sea, which has after all proved almost entirely fruitless. After the failure of this scheme Bonaparte determined to excavate a harbor from thc solid ground. The work was prosecuted with great vigor, and by 1813 a basin was finished, 1,000 feet long, 770 wide. 50 feet deep, covering a surface of about 18 acres, and capable of containing 50 sail of the line. Bonaparte's next project was a wet dock of equal dimensions. It was begun in 18 fo, and is now approaching towards completion, after having cost, along with the basin (and exclusive of the o nearly five millions sterling. Brest, the chief station of the French marine, is situated on a bay in the department of Finisterre, and has one of the best harbors in Europe. The road affords safe anchorage for at least 500 men of war. The harbor is in the form of a long canal, with a very narrow and difficult entrance, defended by strong fortifications. The town contains an immense naval arsenal, a dock-yard, rope walks, forges, foundries, and every thing necessary for the construction and equipment of ships of war. The population is 24, 180. Toulon, the only harbor for the navy on the coast of the Mediterranean, is a strongly fortified town a little E of Marseilles. The old and new harbor lie contiguous to each other and by means of a canal communicate with one another, and each has an outlet into the spacious outer harbor, which is naturally almost of a circular figure, very large, and surrounded with hills. The entrance on both sides is defended by a fort, with strong batteries. The new harbor is an artificial basin, the work of Louis XIV. It is well defended by batteries and round it stands the arsenal, where every man-of-war has its own particular storehouse. Here are rope-walks, foundries, and magazines of all kinds of naval stores on a great scale. The population is estimated at 29,000. The following are the principal seaports, not already mentioned. 1. Dunkirk is the only harbor of France on the German ocean, and being the most convenient port for receiving the merchantmen captured in time of war from the English and Dutch, it has been strongly fortified by the French government. It has considerable trade and more than 26,000 inhabitants. 2. Calais, 25 miles S. W. of Dunkirk and opposite Dover in England, has a small harbor too much obstructed with sand to admit large vessels. 3. Boulogne, on the English channel, in the Pas de Calais, is a favorite place of resort for English emigrants. The harbor was sormerly one of the best on the coast but is now nearly choked up with sand. Here lay the flotilla prepared by Bonaparte in 1801 and 1805 for the invasion of Great Britain. . 4. Dieppe, 100 miles N. W. of Paris, is on the most direct route from London to Paris, and in time of peace there are regular packet-boats between this port and Brighton, a distance of 66 miles. 5. Havre de Grace, the port of Paris, is a strongly fortified town at the mouth of the Seine, with a harbor capable of containing 600 or 700 vessels. and deep enough for ships of war of 60 guns. It has an extensive inland trade by means of the Seine, especially with Paris. The population is 21,000. 6. Rochelle, in the department of Lower Charente 80 miles S. of Nantes, is a strongly fortified seaport with a good harbor and considerable trade. Population, 17,500. 7. Rochefort, on the Charente 5 miles from its mouth, has a deep and secure harbor aud is one of the principal naval stations of the kingdom- 8. Bayonnc is situated near the S. W. corner of the kingdom, at the conflux of the Nive and Adour, which here form a commodious harbor two miles from the bay of Biscay. It has considerable commerce with Spain and 12,600 inhabitants. The following are the principal towns in the interior not already mentioned. ]. Lisle or Lille, the capital of the department of the North, is a large and strongly fortified city, with an extensive trade and various manufactures. Its citadel, the work of Vauban, is the first in Europe after that of Turin. Population in 1817, 61,500. 2. Cambray, famous for the manufacture of a fine species of linen which has received from this place the name of cambric, is on the Scheldt near its source, 100 miles N. N.E. of Paris, and contains (4,000 inhabitants. 3. Amiens, on the Somme, 40 miles from its mouth, contains 40,000 inhabitants, and is famous throughout Furope for its extensive manufactures of serge and other woollen stuffs, and also for the treaty of peace between France and England signed here in 1802. 4. Rhtims is in the department ot the Marne, on the small river Vesle a branch of the Aisne, 100 miles E N. E. of Paris, and contains 38,000 inhabitants. The archbishop of this ancient city is the primate of the kingdom. 5. Strasbourg is a strongly fortified town in the department of the Lower Rhine, on the high road from France to Germany It has a Protestant university and 50,000 inhabitants. €. Versailles, a few miles S. W. of Paris, at the commencement of <he last century was a small village in the midst of an extensive forest. Louis XIV. made it the royal residence, and erected here a magnificent palace, with beautiful gardens, adorned with statues, eanals, fountains, and a park five miles in circumference. The population is 23,000. 7. Orleans is beautifully situated near the centre of the kingdom, on the N. bank of the Loire, by means of which, and the tributary streams and canals connected with it, a communication is opened with all pars of the interior. It has aa extensive trade and 42,000 inhabitants. 8. Toulouse, on the Garonne, at the head of navigation, has a university and 48,000 inhabitants. 9. Atontpelier, the capital of the Herault, is 100 miles W. N. W. of Marseilles, and 5 or 6 from the sea, with which it communicates by a canal. It has long been a favorite residence of invalids from England on account of the pure air and mild climate. It has considerable trade, particularly in wine, and 33,000 inhabitants. Cetie, its port, is at the eastern termination of the famous canal of Languedoc, 18 miles distant. 10. JVtsme*, 30 miles N. E. of Montpelier, contains 40,000 inhabitants, of whom 25,000 are Protestants. It is particularly interesting from its ancient monuments, of which it is said to contain more than any other city in Europe except Rome. The town has suffered severely from the dissensions between the Catholics and Protestants in this part of France.