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Dublin, in a wet dock on the south side of the Liffy. Another canal connects Dublin with the river Bovne: it terminates in a wet dock on the north side of the Lilly. Both these canals are navigated by boats of 60 ion9 burden. In the N. E. part of the island there are two canals; one opening' a communication between Lough Neaghand Belfast bay on the east, and another connecting the same lake with Carlingford bay on the south.
Education.] Trinity college in Dublin is the only university in Ireland. It was founded by queen Elizabeth, and consists of a provost, 25 fellows, and 70scholars. There are 13 professors, and in 1818 the number of students was 1209. Attached lo the university are a printing office, an anatomy house, an observatory, and a library of 68,946 volumes. The education of the lowar classes has been almost entirely neglected. Within a few years, however, societies have been formed by the benevo'»-ut in Great Britain for the establishment of schools in Ireland, and their efforts have been attended with much success. In 1817 there were 27,000 children receiving instruction in the schools of the Hibernian society.
Government.] Since 1800 Ireland has been inseparably united wit.i Great Britain, and the two countries are styled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Ireland sends 100 representatives to the house of commons, and 28 members to the house of lords as the representatives of the Irish peerage, besides five spiritual lords.
Religion.] The established religion is that of the church of England; but it is computed that three fourths of the people are Catholics, and of the remaining fourth about one half are Presbyterians. The Catholics were formerly very severely oppressed, being deprived of every civil privilege, and subjected to vari -us penalties, on account of their religion. This system of intolerance is now considerably mitigated. The Catholics have been long freed from all penalties in consequence of their religion, and the road to civil and military distinction has been opened to them, with some reservation of the higher offices.
Population and Cliaracter.] The population of Ireland has about doubled within the last 70years. In 1754 it was 2,372,634, and at present it is estimated at more than 4,500,000. The manners of the superior classes in Ireland very much resemble those of the English. The Irish gentry seld >m devote themselves to literature or science, but amuse themselves with hunting and other robust exercises. Hence an overflow of health and spirts; and the observation of an able writer that Ireland produces the stoutest men, and the finest women in Europe, must not be confined to the inferior clnsse*. The Irish peasantry are, in general, sunk in poverty and ignorance. They are lodged in miserable mud hovels with one door, and frequently without either window or chimney. They go almost naked, and their food consists almost entirely of milk and potatoes. These remarks apply to the southern part of the island; the north of Ireland, having been planted by colonies of the English and Scotch, the institutions and manner* of all riasses of the people resemble those of ihe prirvnt countries.
Manufactures and Comment.] The manufacture of linen is the staple branch of Irish industry, but the cotton manufacture is *;>r»-ading very rapidly, ami the distillation of spirits has Ions; been carried on to a great extent. The principal exports are linen, corn, butter, provisions, bides, and whiskey. The valve of the export* in 1816 was £6,703,799, and of the imports £5.084,890. The number of vessels belonging to Ireland is about 1,200, navigated by between 5,000 and 6,000 sailors.
Statural Curiosities-] The Giants Causeway is the moot remark" able curiosity in Ireland. It consists of a surprising collection of basaltic pillars on the northern coast, about eight miles N. E. of Coieraine. It projects into the sea to an unknown extent, but the part explored is about COO feet long and from ISO to 240 broad. The pillars are mostly in a vertical position, and their height is from 16 to 36 feet above the level of the strand: in some places, lor a considerable space, they are of an equal height so as to form a level pavement. They are usually from 15 to 24 inches in. diameter, and are rarelv composed of one entire piece, but consist of short or long joints with the surfaces where they meet either flat, or concave with convex corresponding. The form oC the pillar* is verv various; sometimes it is square, sometimes three-sided, sometimes hexagonal and often heptagonal, but the most numerous are pentagonal.
The lake of Killarney is remarkable for its picturesque scenery, and for several natural curiosities. It is about 10 miles long and from one to seven hroad, and is divided into three parts, called the Lower, Middle and Upper lakes. The shore* of the Lower lake are diversified with the most beautiful scenery, and on the south side are lofty mount uns, from one of which O'Sullivan's easrade falls into the lake with a tremendous roar, opposite the romantic island of Innisfallen, the seat of an ancient noted abbey. In the Middle Like is the celebrated rock called the Eagle's Nest, a place wonderful for its echoes; the sound of a bugle born producing tones equal to 100 instruments, and the discharge of a musket caasing a succession of peals equal to the loudest thunder. The Upper lake is entirely surrounded by mountains, and near the summit of one of them is a circular lake, called the Devil's Punch Bowl, which, from its immense depth and continual o»erflow of water, is considered as one of the principal curiosities of Killarney. After heavy rains the wat'T falls down the side of the mountain in the form of a beautiful cascade.
Situation and Extent.'] Norway is bounded W. and N. by the Atlantic ocean; E. by Russia and Sweden; and S. by the Skager Rack. It extends from the Naze in lat. 58° N. to the North cape in lat 71° IT N. The breadth of the country is very different in different parts. The pari below the parallel of G2° 30' N. lat is much the broadest, forming a compact territory 350 miles long by 250 broad. The part of the country lying north of this parallel is a long narrow territory included between the mountains and the sea. The number of square miles in Norway is estimated at 161,000.
Divisions.] Norway is divided into five governments or dioceses, viz. \ggorhuns or Christiania, in the S. E.; Christinnsaod in the S. W.; Bergen in the YV.; anil Drontheim and Nordland, long narrow provinces, in the N.; to which may be added Finmark or Norwegian Lapland, a dreary and inhospitable region, lying still farther north. The extent and population of these divisions are given in the following table:
Total, 161,000 930,000 6
Sea Coast.] The coas tof Norway stretches in a long line from S. W. to N. E. and is deeply indented with bays and creeks. It presents also a succession of islands of various sizes, some of which are barren and uninhabited, and others contain tolerable pasture, and many of them afford convenient stations for the fisheries. The shore of Norway is often bold, and the sea of great depth in the immediate vicinity of the rocks.
Mountains.] The great Scandinavian range passes, under various names, through the whole extent of this country from N. E. to S. W. Above/be parallel of 62° 30' N. lat. it forms the boundary between Norway and Sweden. Below that parallel its course lies wholly in Norway; and here it proceeds at first in a westerly direction under the name of the Dofrafield mountains, forming the boundary between the governments of Aggerhuus and Drontheim, and approaching very near to the western coast: it then turns to the south, and under the name of the Langfield mountains,.' divides the government of Aggerhuus from that of Bergen, and
passing through ChristiansaBd, terminates abruptly at the southern extremity of Norway in a lofty preripice. The highest summit of the whole range is near lat. 68° N.; the highest of the Dofrafiefd mountains is 4,297 feet above the level of the sea. These summits and numerous others are covered with perpetual snow and ice. There are passes across ihe mountains in various places, some of which are narrow and dangerous; that of Fillafield under 61° N. lat. is rich in romantic prospects.
Rivers and Lakes ] The rivers of Norway are numerous, but short and rapid. The mountains every where approaching near to the coast, the rivers descend from them like torrents directly and impetuously into the sea. Owing to the rocks with which they abound they are generally unfit for navigation. The -Glommen, the largest river in Norway, falls into the Cattegat at Fredenckstadt, after a southerly course of about 300 miles. It is full ot shoals and cataracts which completely obstruct the navigation. The Drammen falls into the gulf of Christiania on the west aide. The lakes in the southern part of the country are numerous but many of them are mere expansions of the rivers.
Face of the Country.] The surface of Norway is very uneven, presenting a succession of mountains and vallies, the former in general barren,and uninhabited; the latter not deficient in the productions of a high latitude. The sr.enen is striking from its grandeur and sublimity, but seldom pleasing from the softer beautie*. Vast forests, lofty mountains, rock*, precipices and water falls, and at times a picturesque valley, are the objects which here present themselves to the traveller.
Climate.] In the interior, near the high mountains which form the eastern frontier, the cold of winter is intense, but the atmosphere is serene and healthy. On the sea coast the climate is materially different, being softened I y the western breeze, and is often less eold in the depth of winter than the interior of Germany. The bays along the coast are seldom frozen, the open sea never. This, however, is the region of fog, rain and high wind. In summer the length of the day counterbalances the shortness of the warm season, and corn ripens with uncommon rapidity. In Nordland and Finmark, the sun remain' above the horizon for several weeks successively, and in winter is invisible for a corresponding interval; the dreariness of the latter, however, is lessened by the coruscations of the aurora borealis, and the brightness of the snow, which furnish light sufficient for ordinary purposes.
Soil and Productions.] The soil of Norway is generally stony and barren, though in the southern provinces there are some tracts of considerable fertility. The country does not yield corn enough for the support of its inhabitants, about one fourth part of all that is consumed being imported from foreign countries. In places remote from the coast the inhabitants live on coarse fare, and are accustomed, in seasons of scarcity, to lengthen out their scanty stores by mixing pine bark with their bread. Fiax and hemp are raised in many parts of the country; in others barler and oats, ft it computed that not more than one hundreth put of the kingdom is under tillage; the pastures, however, are extensive, and cattle in considerable numbers are raised for exportation. The mountains are covered with forest" of pine, ash, and! fir, and these are the most important natural productions j timber having been for many ages the principal article of export from Norway.
Chief Town*.] Christiania* the capital, is situated in a fertile valley at the bottom of a gulf of the fame name, in (he province of Aggerhuus. This gulf penetrates above 50 miles into the interior of the country, and is filled with rocky islands which, however, do not interrupt the navigation. The harbor is excellent, and vessels of the Urgent size ascend to the wharves. The town, though not large, is the best built and most thriving place in the kingdom, having regular streets, neat stone houses and about 9,000 inhabitants.
Bergen, the largest town in Norway, lies at the bottom of a long bay, which is inclosed on all sides by rugged and barren rocks. While it has thus from its situation the advantage of a secure harbor, the access is attended with considerable Hanger. The rise of the commerce of this place is to be dated from the year 1446, when the German Hanse towns established here a factory and ware houses. In process of time they came to exercise a sort of authority over the inhabitants; and though this baa long ceased to exist, there is still at Bergen a company of abort 17 German merchants in correspondence with Bremen, Lubeck and Hamburgh. The trade consists in the export offish, fish-ail, timber, tar, tallow and hides, and the import of corn and foreign merchandise. The population is 18,000.
Drontheim is 235 miles N. E. of Bergen on a large bay or arm of the sea at the mouth of the Nid. The harbor is perfectly *»fe, but the entrance is hazardous on account of concealed rock*. It has considerable trade, and the principal exports are copper, iron, timber and fish. The population in 1814 was 8,832.
Chri.itian.iund is on the southern roast opposite several small islands, the principal of which is Flekkeroen. The harbor is uoe of the safest in Norway, and between, the island of Flekkeroen and the shore there is a road several miles in length where th«re is good anchorage. The town was founded bv Christian IV. of Denmark, in 1641, with the view of making it the principal station of his navy. The inhabitants, about 5000 in number, carry on some trade in timber, but their principal employment is io building and repairing vessels.
Roma a, celebrated for its copper mines, is 67 miles S. F. of Drontbeim, on a high mountain which is covered with «r»ow almost the whole of the year. Kongtberg, 36 miles west of Christiania, was formerly celebrated for its rich silver mines, bat they are now unproductive. Skeen, 38 miles S.S.W. of Christiania, has productive mines of iron and copper. Frtderickthall is on the frontier of Sweden, 52, miles S S. E. of Christisnin. On a rock which overhangs the town is the almost impregnable fortress «/