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Mountains.] The principal ranges of mountains arc, 1. The. Scandinavian chain, which commences at the southern extremity of Norway, and running north, soon becomes the boundary between Norway and Sweden. It proceeds in a northeasterly direction, parallel with the coast of Norway, almost to the 70th degree of N. lat. where it turns to the east, and soon after to the, southeast, in which direction it continues till it gradually sinks into hills and terminates among the small lakes between the gulf of Finland and the White sea. In almost every part of its course it is parallel with the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, and in shape it resembles a horse shoe.
2. The Pyrenees run in an easterly direction from the bottom of the bay of Biscay to the .Mediterranean, forming the boundary between France and Spain- From the western extremity a branch proceeds into Spain, and soon divides into numerous inferior chains, which diverge from each other, and spread themselves over the whole of Spain and Portugal. From the eastern extremity a branch proceeds into France, in a northeasterly direction till it reaches the sources of the Loire, where it divides into two branches, one of which proceeds in a northerly direction between the Loire and the Rhone, and the other in a northwesterly direction towards the centre of France.
3. The Alps, the loftiest mountains in Eurppe, form the northern boundary of Italy,separating it from France, Switzerland ant) Germany. The)' are in the form of an arch, with one end resting on the gulf of Genoa and the other on the gulf of VeniceVarious chains proceed from the Alps in almost every direction. The Apennines commence near the Mediterranean at the S. W. extremit)', and pursuing an easterly course around the gulf of Genoa, turn to the S. E. and pass in that direction to the southern extremity of Italy. Another chain commences near the head of the gulf of Venice at the S. E- extremity of the main range, and pursuing at first a southeasterly course, passes in a semicircular form through the centre of European Turkey, and terminates on the Black sea at Cape Emineh, in lat. 43° 30' N. The principal northern branch of the Alps is the Mount Jura chain, which commences near Geneva, at the S. W. extremity of Switzerland, and in the first part of its course forms the boundary between Switzerland and France, after which it continues to run in a northerly direction, under the name of the Vosqes, on the west side of the Rhine, as far as the parallel of 60° N. lat. Besides theso three principal branches, the Alps throw off numerous inferior chains in a northeasterly direction, which overspread nearly the whole southern half of Germany.
4. The Carpathian mountains encircle Hungary on three sides, separating it from Germany on the N. VV. from Galicia on the N. E. and from Turkey on the S. E. At the southeast extremity of the range, a branch proceeds in a southerly direction across the Danube to the centre of European Turkey, connecting the Carpathian mountains with the great eastern branch of the Alps. Al the N. W. extremity also they are loosely connected with the mountains of Germany.
Face of the country. | Norway and Sweden are mountainous The countries included in the three southern peninsulas, viz. Portugal, Spain, haly and Turkey, are also traversed by mountain ranges. The same description applies to a large portion of Hungary, the southern half of Germany, nearly ihe whole of Switzerland, and the southeastern part of France. All the northern and western parts of France are hilly. The rest ot continental Europe, comprising Netherlands, Denmark, the northern part of Germany, Prussia, and Russia, consists chiefly of plains.
Climate-] As respects climate Europe may be divided into three regions, very unequal in extent. The first comprehend* all below the parallel of 45° N. lat. This is the climate of the olive, the vine, the mulberry and the orange. The second, and much the largest, includes all between the parallels of 45° and (65°. This is the climate of wheat, flax, oats, hemp, &c. The vne is also cultivated successfully as high up as the parallel of 50". The third region, including all above the parallel of 65°, has a gloomy and desolate aspect. The pines'and firs at first cover the hills with their constant mantle of dark green, but towards the northern part every species of vegetable which is useful to man entirely fails; and nothing appears but dwarf trees and a few scattered bushes.
Situation and Extent.] Great Britain, the largest of the European islands, is situated between 50 and &8\ N. lat. and is bounded N. by the Atlantic Ocean; E. by the North sea or German Oc< an; S. by the English channel, and W. by St George's channel and the Atlantic Ocean. It is 580 miles long from north to south, and on an average 150 broad, the area being computed at 88,573 square miles. The figure of the island is very irregular, bat bears some resemblance to a wedge, being narrow in the northern part, and growing broader towards the south, and its whole coast is deeply penetrated by bays, creeks and estuaries, which afford many safe and commodious harl>ors.
Divisions.] The island is divided into North-Britain or Scotland, and South-Britain or England including Wales.
Situation and Extent] This country is bounded N. by Scotland, from which it is separated by the river Tweed, and a line running in a southwesterly direction to the Frith of Solway; E. by the German Ocean; S. by the English channel; and W. by St. George's channel. It extends from 50° to 55° 40' N. lat. and contains 58,335 square miles, of which number 50,210 are in England and 8.125 are in Wales.
Divisions.] England is divided into 40 counties, and Wales into 12, which are given in the following table, arranged in geographical order.
Counties. Sq. miles. Pop. in 1811. Chief towns. ( Northumberland, 1,809 172,161 Newcastle. Six | Cumberland, 1,497 133,744 Carlisle. northern j Durham, 1,040 177,635 Durham. coun- i Yoire, 6,013 973,113 York. ties. lo, 722 45,922 Appleby. Lancashire, 1,806 828,309 Lancaster. Four (Cheshire, 1,017 227,031 Chester. border- ) Shropshire, 1,403 194,398 Shrewsbury. ing on \ Herefordshire, 971 94.073 Hereford. Wales. (Monmouthshire, 516 62,127 Monmouth. Nottinghamshire, 774 162,900 Nottinghaia. Derbyshire, 1,077 185,487 Derby. Staffordshire, 1,196 295,453 Stafford. Leicestershire, 816 150,419 Leicester. - Rutlandshire, 200 16,380 Okeham. Twelve J Northamptonshire, 965 141,350 NorthamptoL. midland. }. Warwickshire, 984 228,735 Warwick. Worcestershire, 674 160,546 Worcester. Gloucestershire, 1,122 285,514 Gloucester. Oxfordshire, 742 i 19, 191 Oxford. Buckinghamshire, 748 117,650 Aytesbury. Bedfordshire, 430 70,213 Bedford.
Lincolnshire, 2,787. 237,891 Lincoln
Right | Norfolk, 2,013 291,999 Norwich. eastern. Suffolk, 1,566 236,211 Ipswich. Essex, 1,525 252,473 Chelmsford. Hertfordshire, 602 111,654 Hertford. Middlesex, 297 953,276 London. Three (Surry, 811 323,851 Guilford. south- ( Kent, 1,462 373,095 Maidstone. eastern. (Sussex, 1,461 190,083 Lewes. Four Berkshire, 744 118,277 Reading. south- Wiltshire, 1.283 193,828 Salisbury. ern Hampshire, 1,533 245,080 Winchester. Dorsetshire, 1,129 124,693 Dorchester. Three (Somersetshire, 1,549 303,180 Taunton. south- (Devonshire, 2,483 383,308 Exeter. western (Cornwall, 1,407 216,667 Launceston,
Six North Wales.
Counties. Sa. miles.
L Montgomeryshire, 982
| Brecknockshire, 731
Pop.in 1811. Chief totem.
Mountains] Along the whole western side of the country, from Cornwall to Scotland, there are ranges of mountains, which may be considered as forming ooe connected chain. They overspread all the counties of Wales, in which country they attain their greatest elevation; Snowdon, the loftiest summit in South-Britain, rising here to the height of 3,517 feet, and Plynlymon to 2,463 feet. Two lower ranges of hills also commence in the S. W. part of the island, and exteud completely across the country; one, passing in an easterly direction through the southern counties, terminates near the strait of Dover; and the other, stretching towardthe N. E. in an irregular waving line, passes through the centre of the kingdom, and terminates on the eastern coast Dear Flamborough head, in lat. 54° 9' N.
Face of the country.] The face of the country in England is beautifully variegated. In some parts verdant plains extend as far as the eye can reach, watered by copious streams, and covered with innumerable cattle. In others the pleasing vicissitudes of gently rising hills and bending vales, fertile in corn, waving with wood, and interspersed with meadows, offer the most delightful landscapes of rural opulence and beauty. Some tract* abound with prospects of the more romantic kind; lofty mountains, cragy rocks, deep narrow dells and tumbling torrents. Nor are there wanting as a contrast to so many agreeable scenes, the gloomy features of black, barren moors and wild uncultivated heaths. On the whole, however, few countries have a smaller proportion of land absolutely sterile and incapable of culture.
Climate.] The climate of England is liable to sudden aod frequent changes, and to great variations of dryness and moisture. Owing to its insular situation, the extremes both of heat and coW arc tempered, and neither the rigor of winter nor the heals of summer are felt here in the same degree as in corresponding latitudes on the continent. Hence, while in winter the seaport* of Germany and the Netherlands are locked up with ice, lbo*c of England are open at all seasons. No country in the world perhaps displays such a rich and uniform verdure during so large a portion of the year; for the cold in winter is never so severe ns to destroy vegetation, nor in summer does the bloom of nature wither unJer parching hents as in more southern climates. The summer seldom begins with any effect or constancy before the middle or end of June. The ensuing months of July, August and September are often oppressively hot. In the northern counties, the month of October may be said to usher in the winter with' raw, wet, unsettled weather, and November seldom advances far before the same weather commences in the south.
Soil and Productions. ] '1 he richest soil is found in the southern and midland counties. Towards the north the country partakes of the barrenness of the neighoring Scotland; the eastern coast is in many parts sandy and marshy, wbjle Wales and all the western counties are covered with mountains, interspersed indeed with vales of great fertility. In no country is agriculture more thoroughly understood or pursued in a grander style. The nobility and gentry mostly residing upen their estates in summer, often retain considerable farms in their own hands, and practise and encourage every agricultural improvement. Of the 32,000.000 acres which England is supposed to contain, it is calculated that about 10,500,000 are in tillage, 14,000,000 in pasturage, and the remainder uncultivated. Of the 10,500,000 acres in tillage, about 3,500,000 are occupied with barley and oats, 2,000,000 with peas, beans, buckwheat, vetches, kc. 2,000,000 with wheat, and the remaining 3,000,000 remain as fallow, oi in a course of turnips. Of the uncultivated lands about 3,000,000 acres are capable of being brought into a state of cultivation.
Rivers ] Thp four largest rivers are the Severn, in the S. W. the Thames, in the S. E. the Humber, in the N. E. and the Mersey, in the N. W. The Severn rises in the mountain of Plynlymoa in North Wales, and after pursuing an easterly course for some* distance, turns to the south, and then to the southwest, and falls) into the Bristol channel. It is 200 miles long, and is navigable almost to its source, though with difficulty on account of the shallows. Its principal branches are the Avon from the east, and the Wye from the west.
The Tliames rises in the western part of the kingdom, near Gloucester on the Severn, and pursuing a course S. of E. for 140 miles, falls into the German ocean. It is navigable for large; merchant ships to London, 60 miles from its mouth, and for barges, almost to its source.
The Ilumber is a broad river, or rather estuary, formed by the union of the Trent and the Ouse. The Trent rises near the centre of the kingdom, and pursues a northeasterly course of more than 100 miles before it joins the Ouse. It is navigable to Burton. The Ouse is formed by the union of the Yore and the Swale, and flowing S. E. receives the tVharfe, the Derwent and the Aire. It thus forms the drain by which nearly all the waters of the extensive county of Yorkshire are conveyed to the Humber.
1'he Mersey falls into St. George's channel by a broad mouth, after a southwesterly course of not more than 50 miles in a direct line. It is navigable nearly to its source.