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ored to subdue them. From the first incursions of the Spaniards, their history furnishes a long list of battles evincive of the most determined valor, a valor not surpassed at Thermopylae or Marathon In the last war, which was concluded by a most terrible battle in 1773, the Spaniards expended 1,700,000 dollars, but to no purpose; the Araucanians are now absolutely independent, and keep a resident minister at St. Jago.
Islands.] There are 47 islands in lhe Archipelago of Chiloe or Ancud at the southern extremity of Chili. ' Of these, 32 arepeopled by the Indians and Spaniards, and the rest are uninhabited. Ckilne, which is by far ihe largest and give* its name to the whole groupe, lie* under the parallel of 4.i° S. lat. and is separated from the continent by a channel, in some places only a mile broad. The native Indians, called Chilotes, are remarkably ingenious, docile, and submissive t,o the Spaniards. They have a strong attachmeni to a sea-faring life, and make excellent sailors. Though ihe navigation of the Archipelago is very dangerous, on account of the currents, they venture fearlessly into this perilous sea in frail boat- called piraguas, without either keel or deck. The principal articles of commerce furnished by the*e islands are lumber and fish, the former of which is sent in the form of boards, to Lima and Valparaiso.
The islands of Juan Fernandez are two small islands, lying about 110 leagues from the coast of Chili,in lat. .33° 40' N.and Ion. 78° 52' W. They are at present uninhabited, but are celebrated as the solitary residence for several years of Alexander Selkirk, a Scotch saiior, from whose adventures De Foe wrote the popular novel of Robinson Crusoe.
Situation and Extent.] Patagonia is bounded N. by Buenos Ayres; E. by the Atlantic Ocean; S. by the straits of Magellan, which separate it from Terra del Fuego; and W. by Chili and the Pacific Ocean. On the Atlantic csnst it reaches as far north as Cape Lobos in lat. 37° 30' S. anil on the Pacific as far as the southern boundary of Chili in lat. 43° S. The Dumber of square miles, according to Hassel, is 491,000.
Face of the country.] The interior of Patagonia has been very imperfectly explored, being occupied by hostile Indians. The Andes pass through the whole length of the couutry from north to south, parallel with the western coast, ;it the di»tnnce of from 200 to 300 miles. The northern part of the country cast of the Andi's consists of immense plain-, which may be regarded as a continuation of the pampas of But nos Ayres.
Rivers ] The principal rivers are ihe Kio Colorado and thr Rio Negro or Cusu Louvti. The Colorado is formed by a number °f •streams winch rise in Buenos Ay re*, on the eastern declivity of the Andes, between 30° and 32° S. lat. and after • course of about 1,000 miles, generally to the southeast, it falls into the Atlantic ocean between the parallels of 39° and 40°.
The Rio Negro, or Cusu Leuvu is formed by a number of streams which rise in the Andes between 35° and 38° S. lat. It pursues an easterly course, and being joined by several branches, the principal of which is the Sanquel from the north, falls into the Atlantic near the parallel of 41. S. lat.
Inhabitant?.] Patagonia is inhabited by two principal nations of Indians, the Moluches, and the Puelches. The Moluches occupy all the tract west of the Andes, and an extensive district east of the mountains. The Puelches inhabit the rest of the country, extending along the Atlantic coast and a considerable distance into the interior. Both these nations are subdivided into three or four tribes. The northern tribes of the Puelches are called by the Spaniards the Pampas, because they claim the immense plains of that name. They are of a roving disposition, and frequently attack and harass the Spanish settlements, as well as the travellers who pass from Buenos Ayres to Mendoza over the Pampas. The Tehuelhets, the most southern tribe of the Puelches, inhabit the coast of the straits of Magellan. They are very strong, well made, and warlike,and of extraordinary stature. Several of them are seven and an half feet high, and the usual height of those seen by the Spanish navigators in 1786 was from six and an half to seven feet.
Straiti of Magellan*] The straits of Magellan, which separate Patagonia from Terra del Fuego, are 300 miles long, in some places several leagues broad, and in others not half a league. The navigation of these straits is dangerous in the extreme, both on account of the violence of the currents and the tempestuous weather, so that ships bound to the Pacific ocean universally prefer the passage around Cape Horn;
Terra del Fuego, or the land of fire, is a large island, separated from Patagonia by the straits of Magellan. The face of the country is represented as dreary and inhospitable. It is inhabited by savages, about whom little is known. Statenland is a small island, 30 miles long by 12 or 15 broad, lying east of Terra del Fuego, and separated from it by the straits of Le Maire. It is barren and desolate, hut the English have a small settlement upon it.
Falkland islands consist of two large islands, with a great number of snmll ones surrounding them, lying between 61° and 52°30' S. lat. and intersected by the meridian of 60° W. Ion. The climate is so inhospitable, and the soil so barren, that they seem wholly unfitted for the habitation of men. The British attempted a settlement in 1764, but in 1774 they were ceded to Spain.
South Georgia, or JVew Georgia, in lat 54° 30' S. and Ion. 37° W. fa a desolate island, inaccessible during a great part of the year.
on account of »he ice with which it is surrounded. It is visited" h? the English and Americans, for the purpose of taking seals and sea elephants, which were formerly very numerous.
The Gallapagos islands lie in the Pacific Occah, on both sides of the equator, between Ion. 89° and 92° W. about 200 miles from the western const of South America. They are very numerous,* but only nine are of any considerable size. Albemarle, the largest, is 65 miles long and 45 broad. Many of the islands are well wooded, and abound in fine turtles.
Bermudas, or Somen' islands, are n cluster of small islands in the . Atlantic,belon?ing to the English, in number about 400,but for ihe most part so small and barren, that they have neither inhabitant* nor name. They are about 200 leagues from cape Hatteras in Worth Carolina, and the north point of the group i* in lat 32° 24' N. Ion. 63° 28' VV. The principal island is Si. George, on which there is a town containing 300 houses. The population of the whole group is 10,381, of whom 5,462 are whites and 4,915 blacks. The Bermudas contain from 10,000 to 12,000 acres- of poor land.of which nine parts in 10 are either wholly uncultivated, er reserved in woods for a supply of timber for building small ships, sloops, and shallops for sale; this being one principal occupation of the inhabitants. The air is so salubrious thai invalids from the United States frequently go thither for the recovery of their health.
Situation and Extent-] Europe is hounded on the N. by the Arctic or Frozen Ocean; E. by Asia, from which it is separated towards the north by the Ural mountains, and towards the south by the sea of Azoph, the Black sea, the sea of Marmora, and the Grecian Archipelago ;* on the S. by the Mediterranean, which separates it from Africa; and en the W. by the Atlantic Ocean, lis greatest length, from cape St. Vincent at the southwestern extremity, to the Ural mountains, is about 4,000 miles, and from cape Matapan, at the southern extremity of Turkey, in lat. 36* 23' N. to the North cape in lat. 71° 11', N. it is 2,400 miles broad. The area is estimated by Mussel at 3,387,019 square miles.
* The intermediate boundary, from the Ural mountains to the tea of Aiopb is variously lepresented by geographers. The line which approaches nearest to a natural boundary begins on the sea or Aioph, at the mouth of the Don, and follow, up that river to the point where it approaches newest to the Volga; then acros to the Volga, and up that riser to the mouth of the Kama, one of its branches, whose head waters rise in the Ural mountains; the boundary would therefore be completed by pursuing it along the to it* source.
Seas.] The following are the principal seas. 1. The White Sea, on the northern coast of Runsia, opening into the Frozen Ocean; 2. The North Sea, or German Ocean, which is almost inclosed by Great Britain on the west, and Netherlands, Germany, Denmark ami Norway on the east. 3. The Bo/h'c,which has Sweden and Denmark on the west, Germany and Prussia on the south, and Russia on the east. It is 600 miles long, from 75 to 150 broad, and contains about 120,000 square miles. 4. The Mediterranean, the largest sea in the world, lies between Europe on the north, Asia on the east, and Africa on the south. It is 2,000 miles long, and on an average between 400 and 500 broad, containing about 900,000 square miles. 5. The Grecian Archipelago, or JEgean sea, lies between Greece and Asia Minor, and abounds with small islands.
6. The sea of Marmora is a small body of water 90 miles long, lying between Turkey on the north, and Asia Minor on the sviitli.
7. The Black *ea,called also the Emine, lies between Russia on the N. Asiatic Turkey on the E. and *». and Turkey in Europe on the W. It is 932 miles from east to west, and on an average 320 broad, containing about 300,000 square miles. 8. The sea of Azoph lies N. E. of the Black sea, and contains about 16,000 square mile9.
Bays or Gulfs.] The principal bays in the Baltic are the Gulf of Bothnia, which separates Sweden from Russia, and the Gulfs of Finland and Riga, which lie wholly in Russia. The bay of Biscay washes the whole western coasi of France and the northern coast of Spain, and opens into the Atlantic Ocpan between Cape Ortegal and the island of Ushant or Oues«ant. The principal bays in the Mediterranean are the grdf of Lyon, on the coast of France, the gulf of Genoa, in the N.W. part of Italy, and the gulf of Venice or Adriatic sea, which stretches from S. E. to N. W. between Italy and Turkey.
Channels.] The English channel lies between England and France. St. George"1) channel lies between Great Britain and Ire* land. The Cattegat separates Denmark from Sweden. The Skager Rack, which separates Denmark from Norway and opens into the North sea, is merely a continuation of the Cattegnt.
Straits.] The strait of Jenikalc connects the sea of Azoph with the Black sea; the Bnsphorus, or strait of Constantinople, connects the'Black sea with the sea of Marmora; the strait of the Dardanelles, the ancient Hellespont, connects the sea of Marmora with the Archipelago; the strait of Gibraltar separates Spain from Afjica, and connects the Mediterranean with the Atlantic ocean; the strait of Dover or Calais »eparates England from France, and connects the English channel with the North sea or German ocean; the Baltic communicates with the Caltegat by three straits ; the mo-t eastern, called the Sound, lies between the island of Zealand and the roast of Sweden; the middle, called the Great Belt, between the islands of Zealand and Funen; and the western, called the Little Belt, between the island of Funen and the coast ol Denmark.
Rivers.] The principal rivers are the following, beginning in the southwest. Into the Mediterranean flow the Ebro and the JiAone; into the gulf of Venice, the Po; into the Black sea, the Danube, the Dniester, and the Dnieper; into the sea of Azoph. Ibe, Don; into the Caspian sea, which lies wholly in Asia, the Volga; into the gulf of Archangel, the Dwina; into the gulf of Riga, the Dwina or Duna; into the Bailie, the Vistula and the Oder; into the North sea, the Elbe, the Weser, and the Rhine; into the English channel, the Seine; into the bay of Biscay, the Loire and the Garonne; into the Atlantic ocean, the Duero, the Tagus, the Guadiana and the Guadalquivir
Most of these rivers are confined in their course to some particular country, under which they will he most conveniently described. The Danube, the Rhine, and the Rhone, however, belong to no one country. The Danube, the largest river of Europe except the Volga, rises near the S. W. corner of Germany, in lat. 48° N. and after pursuing an easterly course through Germany, passes into Hungary, where it turns to the south and then to the S. E. and becomes for a short distance the boundary between Hungary and Turkey, after which its course lies wholly in Turkey till it discharges itself into the Black sea by five mouths between 44° 30' and 45° 30' of N. lat. It is 1620 miles long and is navigable, though with some interruption from shoals and rapids, to L'lm, in Ion. 10° E.
The Rhine rises near the centre of Switzerland, and flowing N.E. falls into the lake of Constance. Issuing from that lake with a copious current, it flows west, forming the boundary between Switzerland and Germany,and then turns to the north, forming the boundary between Germany and France for a short distance, after which its course lies wholly in Germany till it enters the kingdom of the Netherlands, where it turns to the west and divides into several streams, which pursue their way under various name's to the North sea. It is 700 miles long, and is navigable with few interruptions from its mouth to the lake of Constance.
The Rhone rises also near the centre of Switzerland, within 5 miles of the source of the Rhine, and flowing west tails into the lake of Geneva. Issuing: from that lake it pursues a southwesterly course into France, where it turns to the south, and discharge* itself by three mouths into that part of the Mediterranean called the Gulf of Lyon, after a course of oUO miles. It is the mo«t rapid river in Europe, and the upward navigation can be per formed only by draught or steam.