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miles, out of the 2,200,000 which it contain*, being as yet brought under cultivation. This immense wilderness is traversed by the principal tributaries of the Amazon and La Plata, whose head streams are separated from each other by the Andes of Chiquitos, which winds its way irregularly from east to west through the very heart of the country, between 10° and 20° S.
Rivers.] The principal tributaries of the Amazon, beginning in the west, are the Madeira, the Tapajos, the Xingu, and the Tocantins, all of which take their rise in the Andes of Chiquitos, and proceed from south to north, and the least of them has a course of more than 1,000 miles.. The Paraguay, the Parana, and the Uruguay, rise in this countr\ and pass into Buenos Ayres. All these rivers have been heretofore described. They open a navigable communication from the ocean to almost every part of the interior.
The most remarkable streams which fall directly into the ocean, beginning in the north, are, I. the Parnaiba, which discharges itself on the northern coast, in Ion. 43° W. 2. TheRioFrancisco, which rises on the western declivity of the Brazilian Andes, near the parallel of 20° S. lat. and pursuing a northerly course along the foot of the mountains, at last turns to the east, and discharges its waters under the parallel of 11 S. lat. after a course of 1,000 miles. 3. The Rio Grande, which rise« near the source* of the Francisco, and falls into the ocean a little north of Porto Sejruro, in lat. 16° 207 S. 4. The Paraiba, which pursues a northeasterly course of 150 mites along the foot of the eastern declivity of the mountains, and discharges itself in lat. 21° 34' S. 5- The Rio Grande, the second of the same name, dischargee itself in lat. 32° S. about CO miles from the southern boundary.
Climate.'] The greater part of the country is in the torrid zone. In the neighborhood of the Am»zon, and in the northern regions generally, the heat is intense, but tempered by the humidity of the climate, and by the copious dews which fall to refresh the thirsty soil. In the southern provinces the climate is mild and temperate, and sometimes cold; Fahrenheit's thermometer falling occasionally below 40°. The«country generally is considered healthy; but the west wind, passing over vast, forests and marshy grounds, becomes sometimes unhealthy in the interior. The rainy season commences in March, and continues till August; the dry season occupies the rest of the year. The northern provinces frequently suffer from the want of rain; vegetation languishes, and all verdure fades away under the influence of unintermitted and parching heats; but those parts which have the advantage of shelter and moisture, present the appearance of perpetual spring; and when the earth is refreshed by the periodical rains, it is clothed with the most luxuriant verdure.
Soil and Productions.] The soil, so far as it has been explored, is extremely fertile and well watered. In so extensive a country, the production, must of course be different in different parts. The northern provinces produce cotton, sugar, coffee, tobacco, and all the common fruits and vegetables of tropical climates; while in (he lourh, wheat and other European gram* are raised in abundance, and in some districts the country swarms ivilh innumerable herds of cattle. The forests every where abound with the greatest varieties of useful and beautiful wood, well adapted for dyeing, for cabinet work, or for ship-building. But the most preciou* productions of Brazil are diamond* and gold, which are found in abundance, especially in the capitania of Minus Gomes.
Gobi and Diamonds.] The gold and diamonds of Brazil are chiefly found in the beds of the mountain torrents, or in deep vallies, in a stratum of rounded pebbles or gravel, from which they are separated by washing. All the head waters of the great rivet* which flow northward and fall into the Amazon, as the Araguaya, the Xingu, the Tapajos, and the Madeira, are found productive of gold. The principal diamond ground is in the canitania of Mina* Geraes, among the mountains in which the Rio Franci«co and the Rio Grande have their rise. What is termed the Diamond district, extends about M miles from north to south, ami 'ib from east to west around t lie sources of these rivers. This territory is under military government, and guards are stationed on all the roads to examine travellers, and detain persons suspectcl of smuggling diamonds. No one is allowed to enter the Diamond district without the permission of the governor. The pernon who is detected in smuggling, is punished with the confiscation of his whole property and exile to Africa, or with imprisonment, sometimes for life. The average quantity of diamonds obtained in this district, may be estimated at from $0,000 to 25,000 r.arats annually, which are sent under a military escort to Riq Janeiro, and there lodged in the royal treasury. The collection of diamonds now in possession or the king of Portugal is the finest in the world, and is supposed to exceed in value three millions sterling. The largest diamond ever found in America, weighing almosi an ounce, is one of the collection.
.Ijrieuliure.] The gold and diamonds with which Brazil abounds, have proved a great obstacle to agricultural improvement. All classes have a fatal propensity to rngnge in searching after these hidden treasures; and so engrossed are their minds with the sanguine prospect of immense and sudden wealth, which they expect from these projects, that they disdain to seek a moderate but certain competence through the slow process of ordinary industry. No country would yield to its inhabitants a richer or more varied produce than Brazil, containing as it docs snch variety of climate, and snch a happy diversity of hill and valley. But all these advantages arc neglected. Alining is the favorite pursuit, and so much has this prejudice affected the national manner", that u person engaged in mining is universally considered as of higher rank than an husbandman. It is remarkable al»o, that most of the towns in the interior of Brazil were originally mining stations, established by bands of adventurers; and it was not till all the riches of the surrounding country were exhausted. ;hat they seriously applied themselves to agriculture.
Chief Town*.] Rio Janeiro, or St. Sebastian, stands in lat. 88* 54' S. on the shore of a large bay or harbor, at the foot of several high mountains which rise behind it. The harbor is easy of access, and one of the finest in the world for capaciousness and security. The entrance, which is about two miles wide, is bounded on one side by a conical hill, 700 feet in height, and on the other by a huge mass of granite, which supports the castle of Santa Cruz. Near the middle lies a small island, on which Fort Lucia is built. The channel through which ships enter lies between the two forts. Though at first narrow, the harbor gradually widens to about three or four miles; in several directions it branches farther than the eye can reach, and is interspersed with numerous little islands and peninsulas. The town stands on the west side of the harbor, four miles from the entrance, on a projecting tongue of land, at the extreme point of which is a fort commanding the town. Opposite this point, and separated from it by a deep and narrow channel, is Serpent island, around which are the usual anchoring places for the shipping that frequent the port. The town is generally well built, the houses being usually of stone or brick, and the churches and convenis are numerous. The population is estimated at 100,000, of whom about one half are negroes. This city is the chief mart of Brazil, especially of the provinces of Minas Geraes, St Paul, Goias, and Hatto Grosso, which contain the mining districts.
St. Salvador, or Bahia, is in lat. 12° 45' S. on the bay of All Saints, which puts up from S. to N. about 40 miles, and is eight miles broad at the mouth. The town is built on the eastern shore of the bay, commencing about one mile from the point at the entrance. It extends upwards of three miles along the coast, and near the centre, more than a mile into the interior, gradually narrowinjr, however, towards each extremity. A single street runs along the shore the whole length of the town. Immediately back of this, the land rises suddenly to the height of 400 feet, and the principal part of the town is on the top of the hill, from which there is a magnificent prospect of the bay, and the surrounding country. The descent from the upper to the lower town is steep anil laborious, and heavy packages arc conveyed up aad down by cranes and other machinery. The harbor is well defended by numerous foris and batteries, and affords good anchorage close to (he shore, where vessels lie perfectly safe from every wind. The town contains numerous churches and convents, many of them elegant, and the houses are almost universally of stoue, and handsomely built. The population is estimated at upwards of 100,000, of whom 30,000 are whites, 30,000 mulattoes, and the rest negroes. The commerce is very extensive.
Pernambueo lies on the coast N. £. of St. Salvador, in lat. 8° S. The town consists of three divisions, Recife, St. Antonio, and Boa Vista. The division of Recife, which is nearest the sea, and where the principal part of the business is transacted, is huilt at the extremity of a long narrow sand bank, which projects southward from the main land. The division of St. An ton.o, the largest and handsomest part of the town, is on a sandy island, connected with Recife by • narrow bridge. Boa Vista, situated on the continent, and united with St. Antonio by a wooden bridge, consist chiefly of small houses built in a straggling manner. The harbor is formed by a reef of rocks, which runs in from of the division of Recife, and parallel with it, at a very small distance. It ha* two entrances, defended by two forts. The tide enters under the bridge*,and forms a large expanse of water more than three miles in length, having much the appearance of a lake, on the north side of the town. Pernambuco is a thriving place, inhabited by many opulent merchants, who carry on considerable commerce, chiefly in cotton. The population is estimated at 32,000.
Para, the capital of the province of the same name, is on the river Tocantin*, 60 miles from its mouth. The town contains! about 10,000 inhabitants, who are in general very poor. The commerce of the town i« very limited, the navigation of the Tocanlins being difficult and seldom attempted except by small craft. Maranham, or St. Louii dt Maranham, is on an island of the same name, at the mouth of three small nvi-rs which discharge themselves on the northern coast in loo. -I.J0 37' W. It has a convenient harbor defended by a strong castle, and about 15,000 inhabitants. Parniba is a small town of 4,000 inhabitants, about 10 miles from the mouth of a river of the same name, which discharges itself in 7° S. bit.
Sanu*, situated on the coast W. S. W. of Rio Janeiro, is a place of considerable commerce, being the storehouse of the capitania of St. Paul, and employing many vessels in the coasting trade to(he Rio dc la Plata. The situation is low and unhealthy. The number of inhabitants is about 6,000.
St. Paul, the capital of the capitania of the same name, is an interior town about 40 miles from Santos,in the neighborhood of gold mines, which were formerly very productive, but have been exhausted for more than a century. The town stands on a pleasant eminence, surrounded on three sides by low meadow lands. The situation is as salubrious as in any part of South America; (he surrounding country is very fertile, and since the abandonment of the mines has been well cultivated. The population is 15,000, •f which number 500 are clergy, including all orders.
St. Catherine is on an island of the same name, south of Santos. The town is well built and contains about 6,000 inhabitants. It has little trade, but affords an agreeable retirement to merchants who have discontinued business, and other persons of independent fortunes.
Rio Grande, or St. Pedro, near the southern extremity of Brazil, in about laf. 32° S. is a new but very flourishing commercial town. The port is dangerous to enter, the water being shoal, and a violent sea always running. There is, notwithstanding, a great trade, carried on from this place to all the ports of Brazil, in brigs and small vessels that do not draw above 10 feet water. The vicinity of the town is very populous, the number of inhabitants in a circuit of SO leagues being estimated at 100,000. Their principal occupation is the breeding of cattle, and the number of WlcJ exported from Rio Grande is utmost incredible. Wheat i-also shipped from this port to all the towns on the coast.
Villa ifiea, the capital of the province ot'Mirias Geraes, is in the interior, 250 miles north of Rio Janeiro, in the vicinity of gold mines, which for many years were esteemed the richest on the globe. Between 1730 and 1750, when they were in the bright of their prosperity, the king's fifth is said to have amounted to at least a million sterling annually These mine* are now much less productive than formerly; and the town in consequence has begiin to decline. The inhabitants are represented as extremely indolent, and perpetually indulging in visionary prospects of sudden wealth. Contemplating the immense fortunes accumulated by their ancestors from the mines, they have become averse to sober industry. The town is pleasantly situated on the side of a large mountain, and most of the streets range in steps from the base to the summit. The population is about 20,000.
Ttjuco, the capital of the diamond district, lies 200 miles X. of Villa Rica, near the sources of the Jigitonhonha, a branch of the Rio Grande. The number of inhabitants is about 6,000, who are dependent for a supply of provisions on farms situated several leagues distant, the district being very sterile.
Cuiaba, the most western of the mining stations in Brazil, is on a river of the same name, 96 leagues from its confluence with the Paraguay. The town and its dependencies are supposed to contain 30,000 inhabitants. The country around is well adapted for cultivation, and has rich gold mines.
Inland Communication.] The roads in the interior are frequently bad; although there are some which have been made at great expense, and which are tolerably good. The road from the coast to St. Paul, which passes over lofty mountains, is carried through deep forests, and frequently a path is cut through the solid rock, at a vast expence. The usual mode of travelling and of transporting produce is by mules. The communication between the coast and the mining district around Cuiaba, is carried on from St. Paul and Santos by means of the intervening rivers. The following is the common route from St. Paul to Cuiaba: from St. Paul to the banks of the Tiete, a branch of the Parana which passes within a few leagues of the town; then down the Tiete into the Parana, and down the Parana, to the mouth of the Rio Pardo, which fall* into it froai the west. Proceeding up the Rio Pardo and its branches, you arrive within a short distance of the branches of the Taquari, a branch of the Paraguay. Crossing the portape to the Taquari, you descend that river to tho Paraguay, and proceed up the Paraguay to the I'orrudos, anil up the Porrudos, lo the mouth of the Cuiaba, and tip the Cuiaba to the town of the same name. By this route, jail, iron, ammunition, i;c. are sent annually by the government of Brazil to the western districts. Trading parties frequently arrive at M. Paul, from Cuiaba, in the mouth of February, and return io April or May.