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leagues south of Porto Cabello. All the produce from the inté4 rior, which is shipped at Porto Cabello, passes through this town. The population is 8,000. JMaracaibo is on the western bank of the lake of the same name, near its outlet. The harbor has a bar at its mouth, over which vessels drawing more than 12 feet of water cannot pass. The population is 25,000, more than half of whom are whites. Cumana is situated near the mouth of the gulf of Cariaco, on an arid and sandy plain, about a mile from the sea. . The houses are low and lightly built on account of the frequent earthquakes, one of which, in 1797, destroyed four fifths of the city. The inhabitants, 18,000 in number, are principally engaged in commerce, navigation and the fisheries. Barcelona, 10 leagues west of Cumana, on the small river Neveri, abont 3 miles from its mouth, is surrounded by extensive plains which abound with horned cattle. The population is 14.000, half of whom are whites. St. Thomas, the chief town in Spanish Guiana, and capital of the new republic of Columbia, is regularly laid out on the south bank of the Orinoco, 90 leagues from its mouth, and contains 7,000 inhabitants. Inland Navigation.] By means of the Orinoco and its tributary streams, all the country south of the mountains enjoys an easy communication with the sea. This river forms a natural channel for the conveyance to the ocean, of the cattle and produce raised on the banks of the Apura and its wide spreading branches. By means of the Meta also, a navigable communication is opened into New Granada, almost to the very foot of the Andes. The flour, and other productions of an extensive district near Santa Fe de Bogota, are conveyed to market by the Orinoco in preference to the Magdalena. The navigation of the Orinoco is somewhat difficult on account of the islands and rocks with which it abounds, but there is no insurinountable obstacle till you arrive at the cataracts of Atures, 80 leagues above the mouth of the Meta. Population.] The population in 1801, according to the estimate of Depons, was 728,000, of whom about 136,000 were whites, 218,000 negro slaves, 291,000 freed men, and the remainder lndians. In 1822 the whole population may be estimated at more than 1,000,000, without including the tribes of independent Indians. Indians.] Most of the Indian tribes in this country have been brought into subjection to the Spaniards, and have become partially civilized by the labors of the Catholic missionaries. They are allowed to live in villages by themselves, and to be governed by magistrates of their own choice. The principal Indians remaining unsubdued are the Goahiros, who occupy a tract along the coast to the west of the Gulf of Maracaibo, extending for more than 30 leagues. They are about 30,000 in number, and often make inroads into the neighboring settlements. They trade. with the English of Jamaica, from whom they receive arms and clothing. The Guaraunos, who inhabit the islands formed by the mouths of the Orinoco, are about 8,000 in number. Their inde
pendente 13 secured by the nature of their country, which during .•ne part of the yriar Is inundated, and in the other so infested with insects as 10 be uninhabitable (o all except the natives. The Carihs occupy the coast of Spanish Guiana, beiueefl the mouths of the Essequebo and the Orinoco. They have been troublesome neighbors to the Spaniards, but it is supposed might be subdued without much difficulty. Besides these tribes, all the country 011 the Orinoco above the cataracts of Ai tires, and indeed all the immense tract between the sources of the Orinoco and those of the Amazon, are inhabited by nations of savages, who have hilherlo resisted all the efforts of the Spaniards 10 civilize or subdue them.
Religion.] The religion is Roman Catholic, and the number of priests was formerly excessively numerous, but of late years military distinctions, and the honors and emoluments of civil life have drawn away great numbers of the young men from the clerical offire. The donation of Unds and other property to convents and churches, was formerly carried to such an extent as very seriously to affect the prosperity of the country, and the government was obliged to interfere and prohibit it.
Government.] Previous to the late revolution Caraccas was a colony of Spain, and the government was entrusted to a captaingeneral, who resided at Caraccas. In 1811 the inhabitants revolted from the Spanish yoke, and declared themselves independent. ■The mother country, however, afterwards succeeded in establishing her authority, but the revolutionists have recently again expelled the royal troops, and Caraccas is now united with New Granada under one government, and the whole country is styled" ihe Republic of Columbia. Its independence, however, has not yet been acknowledged by any civilized nation.
Education.] Under the old government the system of education was wretched in the extreme. Scarcely^any provision was made for the establishment of schools, and those which were established were conducted on the narrowest principles. So late as the year 1803 there was no printing press in the whole country. Within a few years new modes of thinking and more liberal principles have prevailed. Works in foreign languages, particularly the French and English, are now imported and read with great avidity.
Commerce ] The principal exports are cacao, indigo, tobacco, coffee and cattle. The imports are manufactured goods of almost every description. The contraband trade is carried on to such an extent by the foreign colonies in the neighborhood, that it is impossible, from the custom-house returns, to form any estimate of the real value of the imports or exports. The Dutch in Ouracoa have been engaged in thi£ trade for nearly two centuries, and the English have recently prosecuted it very extensively from Tritiidad,Jamaiea, and Guiana; and such are the facilities afforded by the vicinity of these colonies, by the long extent of coast, and by the navigation of the Orinoco, that the government find it wholly impossible to suppress it.
Island.) The island of Margarita lies off the northern coast, ia lat. 11° N. and Ion. 64° VV. and isseparated from the continent bj a strait eight leagues wide. It contains 350 square miles. The toil is sandy and unfit for cultivation. The population i.< estimaU ed at 4,000, of which number 5,500 are whiles, 2,000 Indiana, and 6,500 slaves and free people of color. Assumption, the capital, stands near the centre of the island. The principal port ia rampatar, on the S. E. side of the island, and it is here that all the fortifications are -erected, which are deemed necessary for the defence of the island.
Situation and Boundaries.'] Guiana is a large tract of country, extending on the coast from the mouths of the Orinoco to the? mouth ofthe Amazon, a distance of 1,100 miles It is hounded N. by Caraccas, from which it is separated by the river Orinoco; E. by the Atlantic Ocean ; S. by Brazil, from which it is separated by the rivets Amazon and Negro; and W. by New Granada, from which it ia separated by Ihe rivers Cassiquiari and Orinoco. Aa the Negro and Orinoco unite by means of the Cas«iqniari. this whole tract is a real island, entirely separated by water from the rest ofthe continent.
Face of the country.] The coast of Guiana is rendered almost inaccessible by dangerous banks, rocks, quicksands and bogs, with prodigious bushes so closely interwoven as to be impenetrable. Along the sea shore, and for a considerable way into the interior, the country presents an extensive and Uniform plain, of unequalled fertility. It is Covered with thick foresls, even to the water1* edge, and the coast ia so low and flat, that nothing is seen at first but (be trees, which appear to be growing out ofthe water Aa you advance into the interior, towards the sources of the rivers, the country rises into mountains, covered with immense forests, and interspersed with rich and fertile vatlies.'
Climate ] 'The climate is milder than that of any tropical country inhabited by Europeans. Though situated in the torrid zone, the heats are tempered by cooling breeze', which regularly blow from the sea, from 10 o'clock in the morning to six in the evening. The night* are damp and fojtgy. The year is divided into two dry and two wet seasons. The long rainy season 'coinnencea about the'middle of April, and continues till the first of August, and is succeeded by the long dry season, which last* till the middle of November. The second wet season begins about the middle of November, and continues till the end of January; the short dry season then commences, and continues till the middle el April; and thus is completed the revolution of the year. The range ofthe thermometer on the sea const, during the dry »eason, which is reckoned the hotteat, is from U4° to 90°, but in general it in confined between 73 and 84. In tlie interior it seldom rises above 80, and durinj the night frequently falls as low as 50 or 6Q.
Rivers.] All the rivers west of the mountains are tributaries of the Orinoco -md the Amazon. They 'raverse an uncultivated country, the greater part of which has never vet been explored. The principal rivers which fall directly into the Atlantic, beginning in the north, are the Essequebo, the Demernra, the Berbice, the Corontine, the Surinam, the Moroni, or Maraveina, the Oyajwk and the Aruary All these rise in the mountains, and are generally navigable for some distance into the interior.
Soil and Productions.] The soil is surprisingly fertile, and overspread with the most luxuriant vegetation, abounding in the finest woods, in all the tropical fruits, and in an infinite variety of both rare and useful plants. The low country, during the rainy season, owing to its extreme flatness, is usually covered with water to the depth of two feet, which so enriches the soil, that in some places 30 crops of rice may be raised in succession, while in the West India islapds the richest lands never yield more than two successive crops. Cultivation is as yet confined to the immediate vicinity of the coast, and the banks of the navigable river* which fall directly into the Atlantic, all of which are lined with plantations of cofiee, sugar, cacao, cotton and indigo.
Animals.] Guiana abounds in a variety of wild animals and beasts of prey. Of the latter, the most powerful and ferocious is the jaguar, which grows to a large' size, and frequently attacks horses and cows. Many of the domestic animals of liurope, such as the ox, the hog, the sheep, &c. have been imported from the old continent, but they do not appear to thrive. The oxen and sheep have degenerated in size and quality. 'Owing to the heat and moisture of the climate, insects and reptiles are produced in great abundance, and are excessively troublesome to the inhabitants.
Divisions.] The coast of Guiana is divided between five different European nations, as follows : •
1. Spanish Guiana, extending from the mouths of the Orinoco to the mouth of the Essequebo. It forms one of the provinces of the captain-generalship of Caraccas.
2. English Guiana, extending from lh#Essequebo to the Corantine, and embracing the three districts of Essequebo, Dernerara and Berbice, each of which extends along the banks of the river of the same name.
3. Dutch Guiana or Surinam, extending from the Corantine to the Marawina. It formerly extended west to the1 Essequebo, but during the late war in Europe, the British took possession of all that is now included in English Guiana, and this part was ceded lo them by the treaty of Paris in 1814.
4. French Guiana, which formerly extended from the Marawina; to the Aruary, but at the Congress of Vrienna, in 1815, the Oyapok was made the boundary.
5. Portuguese Guiana, which occupies the rest of the coast from Oyapok to the Amazon,
The whole western part of the country, extending as far saulL as the equator, is considered as belonging to Spanish Guiana. The boundaries, however, between the different divisions, in the interior, are not accurately determined, and there is no necessity for determining them at present, because the white settlements do not extend Tar from the sea coast, the interior being occupied by warlike Indians.
Chief Towns.] Georgetown, formerly Stabroek, the capital of the district of Demcrara, in English Guiana, i* on the east bank ,of Demerara river, about a mile from its month. The town it built on a flat strand, very little elevated above the level of the water. The houses are of wood, seldom above two stories high, and stand on low brick foundations. The population is estimated at 8,500, of which number 1,500 are whites, 2,000 free people of color, and 5,000 negroes.
JVeto Amsterdam, the capital of the district of Berbice, in English G'iian i, is on the river Berbice, about a mile from its mouth, at the point where it is joined by the river Canje. The town is intersected by canals, which are filled and emptied at every tide, by which means all the filth is carried away before it has time to stagnate a d render the air unhealthy.
Paramaribo, the capital of Surinam or Dutch Guiana, is on Surinam river about 18 miles from its mouth. It is handsomely laid out, all the streets being perfectly straight, and lined with pranjre, tamarind and lemon trees. The trade of the town is very flourishing- The population is estimated at 20,000, of whom 2,000 are Dutchmen, 3,000 Jews, 4,000 free people of color and 11,000 slaves.
Cayenne, the capital of French Guiana, is on the north point of an island of the same name, at the mouth of the river Cayenne. It has a lanje and convenient port defended by a castle, and contains 1500 inhabitants.
Population.] Spanish Guiana contains 34.000 inhabitants, of whom 20,000 are civilized Indians. Portuguese Guisna is considered as a part of Brazil. The population of the three remaining divisions is given in the following table.
Whitet. Free blacks. Slave*. Total
En?lish Guiana, 4.lib 5,380 J02.201 111,741
Dutch Guiana, 5,000 5,000 51,9.57 62,000
French Guiana, 1,307 394 10,748 12,449
Indians.] The principal tribes of Indians in the neighborhood of the colonists are, the Caribs, who inhabit the coast f\efween the Essequebo and the Orinoco; the Worrows, who live al-o on the coast, between the Demerara and the Surinam; the '.IrroTvanks, who five behind the Worrow« at the distance of 20 or 1*0 lea?ues from the sea; and the Jlceawa-xs, who inhabit the country around the sources of the Es«equebo, the Demerara and ihc Herbice. Besides these, there are numerous tribes farther in the interior, who are but little known.
liwiHTrfiy terrors I From the enrlie«t times the Di'tch colonies have been exposed to depredations from runaway ne