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and near the sources of several of the navigable rivers, there are salt springs from which salt inabundnnce may be procured. Near Corydon, in the southern part of the state, is a large cave abounding with Epsom salts and saltpetre.
Chitf Towns.] Vinctnnes, the largest town, is on the east bank of the Wabash, 100 miles from its junction with the Ohio, in a direct line, but nearly 200 by the course of the river. The set-# (lenient was commenced about a century ago by the French from Lower Canada, many of whom intermarried with the Indians, and gradually approximated to the savage state. Within a few years American emigrants have flocked hither in great numbers, and the society is rapidly improving. In 1810 the population was 883, and in 1818 the town contained 250 dwelling houses and stores; a bank, with a capital of $1,500,000; and a college.
Madison, the capital of Jefferson county, is on the Ohio, 45 miles above the falls, and 75 below Cincinnati. It has grown very rapidly for several years past, and is now the second town in size in the state. The population, in 1819, was estimated at 1,300.
Corydon, the temporary capital of the state, is on Indian creek, 15 mile* from its junction with the Ohio, and £7 west of Louisville in Kentucky. It is to be the seat of government till 1825. Population, in 1819, about 1,000. Jrfftmonville is on Ohio river, just above the falls, and opposite Louisville in Kentucky. A company has been incorporated to cut a canal around the falls, on the Indiana side of the river, commencing just above this place. Should this canal be formed, Jeffersonville would become a place of importance. Vevay, the capital of Switzerland county, is pleasantly situated on the Ohio, nearly equidistant from Cincinnati, Lexington and Louisville, 45 miles from each. The inhabitants are emigrants from Switzerland. In 1814 the site of the town was a forest, but in 1817 it contained 84 dwelling houses, a courthouse, jail, market-house, church and printing office. Half a mile below the village are the Swiss vineyards, where the culture of the vine has been successfully introduced.
Inland A'avigation.] About 8 miles from fort Wayne, in the northeast part of the state, one of the branches of the Wabash approaches within a short distance of St. Mary's river, a navigable branch of the Maumee which falls into lake Erie. When the waters are very high these rivers overflow the intervening lands to such a depth, that loaded boats pass ever with facility. Of the practicability, therefore, of connecting them by a canal there can be no doubt; and in a law of Congress appropriating a portion of the public lands to the improvement of inland navigation, 100,000 acres were assigned for defraying the expense of this project.
Kiluaition.] In the act of Congress admitting this state into
the Union, one section, or thirty sixth part, of each township wa8
tjivpn for the support of schools. One entire township, or
23.010, acres, said to be worth, on an average, 10 dollars an
acre, was also given for the support of a college. The college i* )oc»led at Vincennes, and a large brick building is already erected.
Population.] The population in 1800 was 2,500; in 1810, 21,520; in 1815, 68,784; and in 1820, 147,178, of whom 190 were slaves and 1,230 free blacks. A majority of the inhabitants are fom Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and the Carolina?; the % remainder are from every other state in the Union, and from almost every nation in Europe. The Indian title to large tracts of tine land has been recently extinguished by the United States, and the number of immigrants is, in consequence, rapidly increasing.
Government] The legislative power is vesled in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen annually by counties, and their number can never be less than 36 nor more than 100. The senators are chosen for three years, and their number can never be less than one third, nor more than one half of the number of representatives. The executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen by the people for three years, but he cannot hold hitoffice longer than six years in any term of nine years.
Judiciary power.] The judiciary power is vested in a supreme court and such inferior courts as the general assembly may, from time to time, direct and establish. The judges of the supreme court are appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate. The judges of the inferior courts are chosen partly by the general assembly, and partly by the people in their respective counties. The justices of the peace are elected by the people in the several towns, and hold their offices for five years. The judges of the supreme court as well as of the inferior court* hold their offices for seven years.
Situation and Extent."] Illinois is bounded N. by the NorthWest teritory; E. by lake Michigan and Indiana; S. by Kentucky ; and W. by Mississippi river, which separates it from the . state of Missouri and Missouri territory. The boundary begins in Ohio river at the mouth of the Wabash, and proceeds, thence, up the sam*, and with the line of Indiana, to the north-west corner of said state; thence, east, with the line of the same state, to the middle of lake Michigan; thence, north, along the middle of said lake, to the parallel of 42° 30' N. lat. ; thence, west, along that parallel, to the middle of the Mississippi river; and thence, down along the middle of that river, to its confluence with the Ohio river; and thence, up the latter river, along its north-western shore, to the place of beginning. It extends from 37° to 42°* SO' N. lat., and from 87° 17' to 91° 60' W. Ion. The area is estimated at 52,000 square miles.
Divisions.] Illinois is divided into 19 counties.
Rivers.] This state is well provided with navigable waters. It is bordered on three sides by the great rivers Wabash, Ohio and Mississippi ; its N. E. corner touches upon lake Michigan, and it is intersected by the Illinois and Kuskaskia, which run from N. E. to S. VV. through the heart of the stnte.
The Illinois is formed by the Kankakee and the Desplanf s, which unite in the N. E. part of the state. After their union, the river runs in a S. \V. direction nearly 400 miles, and falls into the Mississippi 18 miles above the mouth of the Missouri. It has a gentle current, and is navigable for boats nearly to its source. The Illinois has numerous tributaries, several of which are navigable for boats more than 100 miles.
The Kaskaskia rises in the eastern part of the. state, between the Illinois and Wabash, and running in a south-westerly direction, falls into the Mississippi 84 miles below the month of the Illinois, after a course of 150 miles, for 130 of which it is navigable.
The other considerable rivers, beginning in the N. VV. are,
1. Rocky river, which rises near the northern boundary of the state, and running in a S. VV. direction, enters the Mississippi 160 miles above the mouth of the Illinois, after a course of 200 miles.
2. The Jlu Vase, which runs into the Mississippi, 55 miles above the mouth of the Ohio. It is navigable for boats 60 miles.
3. Saline river, which empties itself into the Ohio, 26 miles helow the mouth of the Wabash. It is navigable 30 miles. There are salt works, belonging to the United States, on this stream, 20 miles from Us moulh. 4. The Little Wahash, which runs into the Wabash, a few miles from Ohio river, after a southerly course of more than 100 miles. 5. The Chicago, which empties itself into lake Michigan, at its southern extremity. The portage from Chicago river to the Desplanes, one of the head branches of the Illinois, is only 9 miles, and the land here is so low as often to be covered with water and passed in boats.
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.] The greater part of the state is either flat or rolling. Extensive prairie* are
spread over two thirds of its surface. The soil may be divided into six classes. I. Bottoms, bearing a heavy growth of timberThis land is of the first quality, and is found on all the principal rivers. It varies in width from 50 rods to 2 miles, and is of inexhaustible fertility. 2. Newly formed land, found at the mouths of rivers. There are many thousand acres of this land at the mouth of the Wabash, and at the confluence of the Ohio with the Mississippi. It is annually inundated, and is very unhealthy. 3. Dry prairies, near the rivers, bordering on the bottom land, but elevated from 30 to 100 feet. The prairies of the Illinois river are the most extensive of any east of the Mississippi, and have alone been estimated at 1,200,000 acres. This soil is Dot inferior to the first rate river bottom?- 4. Wet prairie, found remote from rivers or at their sources. The soil is generally cold and barren, abounding with swamps and ponds, and covered with a tall coarse grass. 5. Timbered land, moderately hilly, well watered, and of a rich soil. 6. Hills, of a sterile soil, and destitute of timber, or covered with stinted oaks and pines.
Corn is at present the staple production. Wheat does well, except on the bottoms, where the soil is too rich. Tobacco growa to great perfection. Flax, hemp, oats, Irish and sweet potatoes do as well as in Kentucky.
Military Bounty Land*.] In 1617 there were in Illinois upwards of 16,000,000 acres of land belonging to the United State*, obtained by purchase from the Indians. The portion of these lands lying between the Illinois and the Mississippi has been assigned by Congress, as bounty lands, to the soldiers who enlisted during the late war. The whole amount surveyed is about 5.530,000 acres, equal to 8,040 square miles, and is divided into 240 townships. This land is represented to be of an excellent quality.
Chief 7'otriw-l Kaskatkia, the seal of government, is on the right bank of Kaskaskia river, 11 miles from its mouth, and 150 S. W. of Vincennes. It contains about 100 houses scattered ovrr an extensive plain. The town was settled upwards of 100 years ago from Lower Canada, and about one half of the inhabitants art of French origin.
Cahokia is on a small river of the same name, which discharges itself into the Mississippi one mile below the town, 4 miles south of St. Louis, on the opposite side of the river, and 52 N. W. of Kaskaskia. It contains about 1,000 inhabitants, most of whom are of French origin.
Shawncetown,, the capital of Gallatin county, is on the north bank of Ohio river, 12 miles below the mouth of the Wabash, and 12 E. of the salt works belouging to the United Slates, on Saline creek. The inhabitants are supporteu principally by the profits of the salt trade.
Edwardtville, the capital oC Madison county, is a flourishing town, on Cahokia river, 22 miles N. E. of St. Louis. Cairo U kit* uated at the junction of the Ohio with (he Mississippi.
Canals and Roads.] A canal has been projected to unite the head waters of the Illinois with lake Michigan. The Illinois, and ths Chicago, a river of lake Michigan, are so connected, that in freshets boats pass readily from one to the other. For the improvement of this navigation the government of the United State* has appropriated 190,000 acres of land. This canal will openv probably at less expense than any other, a communication between the great lakes and the Mississippi; but as there are no settlements of any importance on the shores of lake Michigan, it will probably be some time before this communication will be opened,
Two per cent, of the nett proceeds of the Uniled States1 lands, lying within the state, are to be expended under the direction of Congress, in making roads leading to the state.
Education.] At the time of the admission of Illinois into the Union, in 1818, the government of the United States granted to the state, on certain conditions, one section or thirty-sixth part of every township for the support of schools; and three per cent. of the nett proceeds of the United States' lands, lying within the state, for the encouragement of learning, of which one sixth part must be bestowed on n college or university. As a farther provision for the university, two entire townships have been given to the legislature.
As the condition of these grants, the convention, which formed the constitution of the state, was required to provide, by an ordinance which is irrevocable without the consent of Congress, that all lands sold by the United States shall be exempt from every species of taxation for five years from the day of sale; also, that the bounty lands granted for military services during the late war, shall, if they continue to be held by the patentees, or their heirs, remain exempt from taxes for three years from the date of the patents; and that the lands belonging to the citizens of the United States residing without the stale, shall never be taxed higher than lands belonging to persons residing therein.—Similar provisions are required of all the new states as the condition on which they receive grants of land and money for the support of schools, roads and canals. It is also usually required that all the navigable waters of the state shall be common highways, and for ever free of toll or duty to all citizens of the United States.
Population.] The population has increased very rapidly within a feiv years. In 1810 it was 12,232; in 1818, 35,2i!0; and in 1820, 55,211 ; of whom, 917 were slaves. Tin: settlements at present are principally confined to the banks of the Mississippi, the Kaskaskia and its branches. There are a few also on the. Wabash anH the Ohio. The constitutiun provides that no mote slaves shall be introduced into the slate.
Indians.] There are about 15,000 Indians in this state and Indiana. The principal tribes are the Sacs, 3,400 in number, on Rocky river, 4 mi I eta)!.''., of the Mississippi, and 400 aliove St. Louis; the Pottawatamies, 2.000 in number, around the souilteri. part of Like Michigan; l!;e Dclavaret and several other tribes, or