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Methodists. There are a few Catholic* and seme Episcopalians. The Catholic bishop reside* at Bardstown.
Government.] The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen for one year ami cannot be less than 58 nor more than 100 in number. The senate consists of not less than 24 nor more than 38 members, who hold their office for 4 years, ODe fourth part being chosen annually. The executive power is vested in a governor, who holds hi* office for four years, but is ineligible for seven years al'ier (lie expiration of the time tor which he shall have been elected.
Commerce and Manufactures ] Hemp, tobacco and wheat are the principal exports. These are carried down the Ohio and Mississippi to New-Orleans, and it. reign goods are received from the same place in return. Louisville is the centre of this trade. The principal manufactures are cloth, spirits, cordage, salt, and maple sugar. The value of the manufactures, in 18 JO, was estimated at $6,181,024.
Curiotity.] In Big Bone valley, about 20 miles S.W. of Newport, larger quantities of huge animal remains have been discovered than in any other part of the United States. It is now more than half a century since these first attracted the attention of European travellers, and so many of the bones have been carried away, that a few fragments only remain to excite the feelings which. are naturally produced by a view of this tomb of the mammoths.
Situation and Extent.] Ohio is bounded N. by the Michigan territory and lake Erie; E. by Pennsylvania; S. E. by Virginia; S. by. Kentucky, and W. by Indiana. It extends from 38° 30' to 42° N- lat and from 80° 32' to 84° 50" W. Ion. The area is esti? mated at 39,000 square miles.
Divisions] In 1820 there were 59 counties, and 742 towns
Cuyahoga, Darke, IDelaware, Fairfield, Fayette, Franklin, Gallia, Geauga, Greene, Guernsey, Hamilton, Harrison, Highland, Hocking, Huron, Jackson, Jefferson, Knox, Lawrence, Licking, Logan, Madison, Medina, Meigs, Miami, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Muskingum, Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Portage, Preble, Richland, Ross, Sandusky, Scioto, Shelby, Starke, Trumbull, Tuscarawas, Union, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Wood,
6,328 3,717 7,639 16,633 6,316 10,292 7,098 7,791 10,529 9,292 31,764 14,345 12,308 2, 130 6,675 3,746 18,531 8,326 3,499 11,861 4,799 3,082 4,480 8,851 4,645 15,999 5,297 17,824 8,429 13,149 4,253 10,095
Since 1820, 12 new counties have been formed out of the country recently purchased from the Indians in the N. W. part of the state; viz. Allen, Crawford, Hancock, Hardin, Henry, Marion, Mercer, Paulding, Putnam, Seneca, Van Wert and Williams. Rivers.] The Ohio runs along the whole southern border, a distance of 420 miles, separating the state from Virginia and Ohio. The principal tributaries of the Ohio, from this state, beginning in the east, are, 1. The Muskingun, which rises in Portage connty, near the N. E. corner of the state, and running in a southerly direction passes by Coshocton and Zanesville, and discharges itself into the Ohio at Marietta, after a course of 200 miles. Above Coshocton, it bears the name of Tuscarawa river. The navigation is obstructed by falls at Zanesville, but a canal and locks have been commenced around them, which will remove the difficulty. Above Zanesville, the river is navigable for large boats to Coshocton, and for small boats nearly to its source. 2. The Hockhocking, which rises in Fairfield county, and running in a southeasterly direction, discharges itself into the Ohio, at Troy, 25 miles below Marietta, after a course of 80 miles, for 70 of which it is navigable. 3. The Scioto, which rises in Hardin county, and running at first in a southeasterly and afterwards in a southerly direction, passes by Columbus, Circleville and Chillicothe, and discharges itself into the Ohio, at Portsmouth, after a course of 170 miles, for 130 of which it is navigable. 4. The Little .Miami, which rises in Madison county, and running in a southwesterly direction. falls into the Ohio. 7 miles above Cincinnati, after a course of 70 miles. It is one of the best mill streams in the state, and 30 or 40 mills are already erected upon it. 5. The Miami or Great Miami, which rises in Hardin county, and running in a S.W. direction, falls into the Ohio, exactly in the southwestern corner of the state, after a course of more than 100 miles. lt is difficult of navigation on account of the rapidity of the current, but has numerous mill seats. The principal rivers which fall into lake Erie, from this state, are, 1. The Maumee, which is formed by the confluence of St. Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers at Fort Wayne, in the N. E. part of Indiana. It runs in a northeasterly direction, and falls into Mautnee bay, at the western extremity of lake Erie. At the distance of 18 miles from its mouth, a series of shoals and rapids commences, and continues for 15 miles up the river. 2. Sandusky river, which rises in Crawford county, and running at first in a wester iy and afterwards in a northerly direction, discharges itself into Sandusky bay after a course of 80 miles. It is navigable nearly to its source, and in one part of its course approaches within 4 miles of the navigable waters of the Scioto. 3. The Cuyahoga, which rises in Geauga county, in the northeastern part of the state, and discharges itself into lake Erie at Cleveland, after a circuitous course of more than 60 miles. Face of the Country and Soil.] The interior parts of the state and the country bordering on lake Erie are generally level and
in some places marshy. About one third or one quarter or the state, comprehending the eastern and southeastern part, bordering on the Ohio river, is generally hilly and broken, but oot mountainous. Immediately on the banks of the Ohio and of several of it' tributaries, are numerous tracts of interval land, of most exuberant fertility. On both sides of the Scioto, and of the Great and Little Miami, are perhaps the most extensive bodies of rich and level land. In many places are extensive prairies, particularly on the head waters of the Muskingum and Scioto, nn.l between the Scioto and the sources of the two Miami rivers. Some of these prairies are low and marshy, and yield spontaneously a large quantity of coarse grass from two to live feet in height; others are elevated, and are frequently called barrens, not, however, on account of their sterility, for they are often fertile. The height of land which divides the waters of Ohio river from those of lake Erie, is the most marshy tract in the state, while the driest land lies along the margins of the rivers.
Productions. | Wheat is the principal production. From 70 to 100 bushels of corn are said to be frequently produced on an acre. Other kinds of grain and fruits of various sorts are also cultivated. Coal is found in abundance along the Ohio in the eastern part of the state. Salt springs have been discovered and wrought on the Muskingum, a few miles below Zaoesville, and in -various other places.
Climate and Diseases.] The climate of Ohio has been commonly considered warmer in the same parallels than that of the Atlantic states. The difference was considered by Mr. Jefferson, as equal to what would result from three degrees of latitude. Observations, however, which have been made at Cincinnati, fur a series of years, seem to prove that there is no foundation for this opinion, or, at least, if there be a difference, it cannot equal one third of what bos been mentioned. The opinion that the climate on the Ohio is more liable to sudden and extreme changes^ and more moist than that of the eastern states is equally erroneous. The diseases to which immigrants are most liable, are bilious and typhus fevers. This is especially the case with the natives of New-England and New-York, who in coming here undergo a change of climate greater than they seem generally to anticipate. They should, therefore, endeavor to arrive in the country late in the autumn; an<! before the ensuing summer place themselves in the most healthy situations which can be found. If they arc careful in this respect, and in the heat of summer shun the evening air, and the noon-day suoT and avoid what is denominated a bilious habit, very few will suffer an Attack; but without such attention, a seasoning, as it is termed, will probably be experienced the first summer after an arrival from the north. In the second, whether the first be sickly or ■ot, there is but little danger.
Chit/ Tonus.] Cincinnati, the capital of Hamilton county and the largest town in the state, is situated on the north bank of Ohio river, opposite Newport in Kentucky, aud about 20 milesfrom the month of the Great Miami rirer, »f the S. W. comer of the nate. It is regularly laid oat, in a pleasant and healthy situation, and is one of the most flourishing towns west of the Alleghany mountains. The growth of the city ha« been rapid, almost without a parallel. In 1805, the population was 60O; in 1810, 2 5)1); in 1R20, 0.642. In 1819 it contained a courthouse; 3 (trick market houses; 4 printing offices; a steam flour .mill, built of ftooe, 9 stories high; n steam sawmill; I woollen and 4 cotton factories; 2 glass houses, mid several other manufacturing establishments; 4 banks; a college ; and 0 or 10 houses of public worship for different denomination*. The commerce ef the town is very flourishing. About 130,000 barrels of flour were inspected her* during the year ending April 1st, 1819, and more than 120.000 bu-hels of salt imported. A company has been recently formed for the purpose of importing gorxl-> directly from Europe by the way of New-Orleans.
ChilKcotkt, the capital of Ho.»s county, is regularly laid out on the west bank of Scioto river, 45 miles, in a direct line, from its mouth, on the border of an extensive and fertile plain, of about 10,000 acres. It contains 5 banks 3 houses of public worship, and an academy ; and in the vicinity are many valuable mills and manufacturing establishments. Population, in 1020, 2,426.
Zanrtrillr, the capital of Muskingum county, is situated on (he east aide of Muskingum river, at the falls, opposite Putnam. It is a very flourishing town, and is well situated for trade and manufactures. The navigation of the Muskingum is uninterrupted from its mouth; the fills afford numerous hoe mill seats, and the surrounding country abound* with inexhaustible beds of coal for such establishments as require the use of fuel. Here are already erected 2 glass-houses, several floor mills, an oil mill, saw mills, a nail factory, and a woollen factory. A company was incorporated in 1814, for the construction of a canal and locks around the falls, and the work i* now rapidly progressing. The expense is estimated at from 70,000 to 100.000 dollars, and the company in tend to unite with the canal extensive water works for manufacturing purposes. The population of Zane«ville, in 1820, was 2,052. Putnam is a flourishing town on the west bank ol Muskingum river, opposite Zanesville, and connected with it by two bridges. Population, in 1820, 512.
Columbus, the capital of the state, is regularly laid out, on 4 pleasant rising ground no the east side of Scioto river, just bel'>w the confluence of the Whetstooe, 45 miles north of Cbillicothe. The growth of the town has been remarkably rapid. In 1812, the lots were first exposed for sale, with the timber then standing upon them, and in 1820, it contained a handsome state-bouse, a building for the public offices nod a penitentiary, all of brick ; a bank ; a market-house; 2 printing offices; more than 200 houses and 1,500 inhabitants. m
SteubemnlU, the capital of Jefferson county, is on the west hank of Ohio river, in the midst of a fertile and populous country, abounding with coal and iron ore. It was regularly laid out in