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followed by substantial independence. In the western parts of Opelousas are found herdsmen and hunters; the cabins are rudely and hastily constructed, and the whole scene recals to the imagination the primeval state of society. Government.] The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen for tw8 years, and their number cannot be more than 50 nor less than 25. The senate consists of 14 members, chosen by districts, for four years. The executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen by the general assembly out of the two highest candidates voted for by the people, and holds his office for 4 years. Education.) Till very recently education was much neglected. Many of the inhabitants are unable to read or write. The government, however, has now coininenced the establishment of schools, academies, and higher seminaries of learning. There is a Catholic college at New-Orleans. Commerce.] The exports from Louisiana are not confined to its own produce. The bulky articles of all the Western states go down the Mississippi and are cleared out at New-Orleans. The value of the exports has increased with wonderful rapidity. In 1804 it was $1,600,362; in 1806, $3,887,323; in 1815, $3,102,610; in 1817, $13,501,036, or nearly two thirds as much as that of the whole United States in 1791. The number of arrivals and clearances at the port of New-Orleans, during the year ending October 1st, 1817, was 1,030. During the same year, 1,500 flat bottomed boats, and 500 barges arrived at the city from the upper country. The difficulty of ascending the rapid current of the Mississippi heretofore prevented New-Orleans from supplying the Western states with foreign merchandize. It was found cheaper to purchase goods in Philadelphia and Baltimore, and transport them by land across the Alleghany mountains, than to stem the rapid current of the Mississippi. But steam boats are now successfully employed in ascending this river, and New-Orleans is rapidly be. coming the emporium of the Western country. In 1819 there were 50 steam-boats on the western waters connected with the commerce of that city, and there were at the same time 13 new boats on the stocks.
Situation and Extent.] Tennessee is bounded N. by Kentncky; E. by North Carolina; S. by Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi; and W. by Mississippi river, which separates it from Arkansas territory. It extends from 35° to 36°30' N. lat. and from 61°30' to 90° 10' W. lon. It is 430 miles long, 104 broad, and contains about 40,000 square miles, or 25,600,000 acres,
Divisions.] The state is divided into 48 counties, of which 26 are in West Tennessee and 22 in East Tennessee.
Bedford, Davidson, Dickson, Franklin, Giles, Hardin, Hickman, Humphreys, Jackson, Lawrence, Lincoln, Maury, Montgomery, Overton, Perry, Robertson, Rutherford, Shelby, Smith, Stewart, Sumner, Warren, Wayne, White, Williamson, Wilson,
Anderson, Bledsoe, Blount, Campbell, Carter, Claiborne, Cocke, Granger, Greene, Hamilton, Hawkins, Jefferson, Knox, Marian, M’Minn, Monroe, Morgan, Rhea, Roane, Sevier, Sullivan, Washington,
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.] The Cumberland mountains, which consist of stupendous piles of craggy rocks, run from N. E. to S. W. through the centre of the state, dividing it into East Tennessee and West Tennessee. East Tennessee is intersected by several ranges of mountains, but the vallies between the ridges are extensive and fertile. West Tennessee is partly level and partly hilly, and contains much fertile scii, particularly on the banks of the rivers. The principal Productions are cotton, tobacco, wheat, hemp, and Indian corn. Climate.] The climate of Tennessee is generally healthy. The season of vegetation generally commences 6 or 7 weeks sooner than in New Hampshire, and continues as much later. Snow falls seldom, and does not lie long. . Ten inches is a deep snow, and 10 days an extraordinary term for its duration. Cumberland' river has been frozen but 3 or 4 times since the settlement of the country. Rivers.] The Mississippi forms the western boundary. Its principal tributaries from this state are Obian, Chickasaw, Forked Deer, and Wolf rivers, all of which are small streams. Cumberland river comes from Kentucky, and making a circular bend, passes into Kentucky again. The Tennessee, properly speaking, rises in Virginia, under the name of the Holston, which runs in a S.W. direction, and crossing the northern boundary of this state receives the Watauga from North Carolina, and, near Knoxville, French Broad river, through a part of the same state, from South Carolina. A little below Knoxville the Holston unites with the Tennessce, which rises in South Carolina, and is comparatively speaking a small river, boatable only 30 or 40 miles. Soon after this junction, the united stream, now bearing the name of Tennessee, receives from the north Clinch river, which rises in Virginia, and is boatable 200 miles. From this grand confluence, the Tennessee, rolling on in a S. W. direction, receives the Hiwassee from Georgia ; crosses the southern boundary of Tennessee into the N. E. corner of Alabama; forms the arc of a circle in that state of about 130 miles chord, usually called the Great Bend ; recrosses the boundary near the N.W. corner of Alabama; crosses West Tennessee in a northerly direction, and enters Ohio river in the western part of Kentucky, 57 miles from the Mississippi, by a mouth 600 yards wide. It is navigable to the Muscle shoals, in Alabama, 250 miles from its mouth, at all seasons of the year, for the largest row boats. Here it spreads out and becomes so shallow that it is difficult for boats to pass when the water is low. Above the shoals there is no obstruction for 250 miles, till you come to the Suck or Whirl, where the river breaks through the Cumberland mountains. The stream, which a few miles above, is half a mile wide, is here compressed to the width of about 70 yards. Just as it enters the mountain, a large rock projects from the northern shore, which causes a sudden bend in the river; the water is thrown with great violence and rapidity against the southern shore, whence it rebounds around the point of the rock, and produces the whirl. The whirl is passed without much danger or difficulty, the situation of the shore being such, that boats ascending the river may be towed up.—The principal tributary of Tennessee river in West Tennessee is Duck river, which rises in the Cumberland mountains, and running in a di"rection N. of W. waters a considerable tract of country included between the Cumberland and the southern boundary of the Plate. It is navigable for boats 90 miles..
Chief Towns.] Nitshville, the capital of Davidson county, is situated on the south side of Cumberland river, in the midst of a very fertile and populous country, and is the largest and most flourishing town in the stale. The Cumberland is navigable to this place for vessels of 30 or 40 tons during the greater part of the year, and in the highest floods for vessels of 400 tons. Steam boats ply between Nashville and New Orleans. The towo contains 2 banks, several manufactories and about 3,000 inhabitants.
Knnxvillc is on the north bank of the Holston, 22 miles above its junction with the Tennessee, 4 below the mouth of French Broad river, and 200 east of Nashville. It is regularly laid out, and contains a bank, a respectable academy, 3 bouses of public worship, and about 2,000 inhabitants.
Afurfreeabnrnugk, the capital of the State, is in Rutherfcid county, 32 miles S. E. of Nashville. It was made the seat of government in 1817. The surrounding country is level, and very fertile, abounding with wheat, cotton, and tobacco. Population, about 1,000.
Eduaitinn.] There is a flourishing college at Greenville, in Eist Tennessee, on French Broad river, 81 miles east of Knoxville. It was incorporated in 1794, and has between 70 and CO students. Two other colleges were also incorporated in East Tennessee, in 1794; one in Washington county, and the other in Knox, but they are not at present in operation. In West Tennessee there is a college at Nashville, called Cumberland college, under the direction of a president and one tutor.
Population and Religion.] The population in 1790 was 3K,691; in 1 COO, 105,602; in 1810, 201,727, and in 1820, 422,813, of whom 80,095, or nearly one fifth part, were slaves. The slaves arc most numerous in the western part of the state. In East Tennessee they constitute less than one tenth part of the population. The most numerous denominations of Christians are Methodists, Baptists and Presbyterians.
Indian*.] The Cherokces inhabit an extensive country, included within the chartered limits of North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee, and containing between 15 and 16,000 square miles. They live thinly dispersed over the country, in log cabins, not much inferior to those of the whites in the neighboring settlements. A considerable number of whites reside in the nation, and many have obtained all the privileges of citizenship by marrying female natives. These intermarriages have been so long practised that a considerable part of (he tribe are tof mixed blood. The mixed breed can generally (peak English, •od a few tend their children to the white settlement* for education. As to their persons, the Cherokee! are well formed and of a good appearance. Some of them have as tine counleunnr.es as can easily be found in any country. The children are almost universally active and healthy, and as apt to learn a* the children of civilized people. Some of the half-breeds have large plants* (ions, which they cultivate with the aid of slaves, but the fullblooded Cherokee* do not carry on agriculture with much rigor. A short time since the number of the Cberokees was 12,395. Within a few years, however, many of the tribe have emigrated (o the country on Arkansas river, on the west side of the Mississippi; the government of the United Slates having assigned them lamls on that river, in exchange for a part of the Cherokee country. In the treaty which was made on this occasion, the government appropriated ahout 100,000 acres of the land ceded by the Cberokees, for a perpetual .school fund, to be applied under the direction of the President of the United States, to the instruction of the Cberokees who remain on this side of the Mississippi.
The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign missions estaMiilied a mission among the Cberokees in 1817- The principal station is at Brainerd, on the western side of Chickamaugah creek, 2 miles from the southern boundary of the state, and 30, in an easterly direction, from the N. Yv. corner of Georgia. Schools have been established in various other places. In 1820, numerous buildings had been erected for the accommodation of the mission, a farm of 00 acres was under cultivation, and more than 200 pupils were receiving instruction in the various schools. Besides being taught reading, writing, arithmetic, and the principles of Christianity, the children are instructed in the most useful arts of civilized life. The boys learn the use of the hoe and the axe, while the girls learn the use ol the spinning wheel and the needle. The Cberokees are much pleased with the missionaries. Throughout the nation there is a general and strong sentiment in favor of having their children instructed. There is another respectable missionary station, established in Ibis nation in 1601, by the Moravians, at Spriagplace, in Georgia, 35 miles S. E. of Brainerd.
The Chickata-xi, a f*w years since, occupied an extensive country, lying within the chartered limits of the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi and Alabama; and bounded E. by Tennessee river; N. by the Ohio; W. by the Mississippi, and S. by the Choctaw country. The part of this tract lying in Tennessee and Kentucky has recently been ceded to the United States. The* Cbickasaws, in most respects, resemble their neighbors the Cboclaws and Cberokees. The number of the tribe, according to «n official statement, is 6,456.
Government.] The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, conflicting of a senate and house of representatives, both chosen for two years. The house of representatives cannot consist of more than 40 members, and the senate can never be lest