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The Matamaha is formed by the Oconee and Ocmulgee, both of which rise in the northern part of the state, and running in a .direction E. of S. parallel with each other, for several hundred miles,unite at the southern extremity of Montgomery county. After their union the river runs in a S. E. direction' about 100 miles, and discharges itself into (he Atlantic by several mouth.', 60 miles S.W. of Savannah. It is navigable for vessels of 30 tons as far as Milledgeville on the Oconee branch, 300 miles from the ocean. The bar at the mouth has 14 feet of water at low tide.
The Satilla discharges itself into the Atlantic under the parallel of 31° N. lat. opposite the northern extremity of Cumberland island, after an E. S E> course of about 190 miles.—St. Mary't river, which, during its whole course, forms the boundary between Georgia and Florida, rises in Okefonoco swamp. It first takes a southerly direction for a considerable distance; then, after bending eastward, turns to the north, and proceeds as far as 4at. 30° 40'. Its course is thence S. of E. for 60 miles, to the ocean, into which it discharges itself between Amelia and Cumberland islands. It has 21 feet of water on the bar at high tide, and is navigable for vessels drawing 14 feet of water for more thai) 70 miles.
The Chatahoochee and Flint rivers unite at the S. W. extremity of the state to form the Appalachicola. The Chatahoochee rises in the northern part of the state, near the head waters of the Savannah, and runs first in a S. W. direction almost to the western boundary; it then turns and pursues a course E. of S. till it meets Flint river. During the latter part of its course it forms the boundary between Georgia and Alabama. Flint river rises near the head waters of the Ocmulgee, and runs at first in a southerly and afterward* in a southwesterly direction through a fertile country for about 200 miles.
Swamp.] Okefonoco sztamp lies partly in Georgia and partly in Florida. It is 180 miles in circumference, and gives rise to two rivers, the Si. Mary's, which has already been described, and the St. Juan or Suwaney, which runs wholly in Florida. There are some spots of rich hammock land, and some pine barrens interspersed among the sit ampy tracts. The only inhabitants are alligators, snakes, frogs and musketoes. The number of these insects, and the large portion of poisonous vapor produced in warm weather, render it uninhabitable by any human being.
Chief Towns.] Savannah is on a Irigh sandy bluff, 40 feet above low water mark, on the S. W. hank of Savannah river, 17 miles from the bar at its mouth. Vessels drawing 14 feet water can come up to the city. JLarger vessels receive their cargoes 3 miles below. The city is regularly laid out in the form of a parallelogram, and contains 10 public squares, at equal distances from each other, inclosed and planted with trees. Many of the houses recently erected are splendid edifices. Among the public building are n hospital, theatre, 3 banks, and 1U houses of public worship. The city is the centre of commerce i~qr a large extent of country, In nine months, ending June 30th 1817, produce was exported to the amount of $9,966,503. Population, in 1820, 7,523, of whom 3,075 were slaves. Jługusta is on Savannah river, just below the falls; 127 miles N. W. of Savannah by land, 340 by water. It is well situated for commerce, and large quantities of produce are brought hither to be carried down the river to Savannah. It contains a theatre, an academy, a spacious city hall, 5 houses for public worship, and about 4,000 inhabitants. JMilledgeville, the eapital of the state, is on the Oconee, 300miles by water from the mouth of the Alatamaha. The Oconee is navigable to this place for boats of 30 tons, and large quantities of cotton and other produce are brought here to be carried: down the river. Population, in 1820, 2,969. Sunbury is a pleasant and healthy town at the head of St. Catherine's sound, 40 miles S. of Savannah. Darien is on a highsandy bluff, on the north and principal channel of the Alatamaha, 12 miles from the bar at its mouth, and 62 S. S. W. of Savannah. Owing to the rapid settlement of the country between the Oconee and Ocmulgee, it has risen within a few years to be a place of much importance. Exertions are now making to render this town the place of export for the produce of the rich back country with which it is connected. Brunswick, on the N. bank, of Turtle river, 10 miles S. of Darien, has a fine harbor. St. Mary’s, on the N. side of St. Mary's river, 9 miles from its mouth, has a good harbor, and contained, in 1820, 771 inhabitants. Education.] The university of Georgia consists of a college, called Franklin college, established at Athens. 70 miles N. of Milledgeville, and of an academy, either established, or to be established in each county. This body of institutions is under the direction of a Senatus Academicus, consisting of the Governor and Senate of the state, and 15 trustees. The senatus academicus appoints a board of commissioners in each county to superintend the academy of the county, and the inferior schools. It" 1817, $200,000 were appropriated by the legislature for the establishment of free schools throughout the state.—Franklin college commenced operation in 1803. It has a president, 4 professors, 2 tutors, and about 30 students. Its funds are 100,000 dollars in: bank stock, and 50,000 acres of land. Population and Religion.] The population in 1790 was £2,548; in 1800, 162,686; in 1810, 252,433; and in 1820, 340.989, having increased more than fourfold in 30 years. Of the poplilation in 1820, 149,676 were slaves, and 1,763 free blacks. The Baptists and Methodists are much the most numerous religious denominations. Indians.] The western part of the state is in possession of the Indians, viz. the Creeks and the Cherokees. The Indian country lately embraced more than 40,000 square miles, or two thirds of . the whole state ; but by the treaty of Fort Jackson, the claim of the Creeks was extinguished to more than 11,000 square miles in the southern part of the state, including the whole: country below the parallel of 31° 35', and a considerable district. north of that parallel. The Creeks now own about 15,000 square miles, extending from Ocmulgee to Cbatahoochee river. and traversed fr»m north to south, nearly in the middle, by Flint river in the upper part of its course- The number of the Creek* was formerly estimated at 21,001), but in their war with the United Stales in 1013—14, they sutfered severe losses. They are now reduced to 20,000, but nre still the most warlike tribe on this side the Mississippi. For several years past efforts have been made to introduce among them agriculture and the arts of civilized life, and with considerable success.— The Cherokee* lately possessed 16,000 square miles in the northern part of the state; but in 1319, they ceded a large- district of it to the United States. Their country embraces also the N. E. part of Alabama, and the S. E. part of Tennessee.
Government.] The legislature is styled the general assembly, and consists of a senate and house of representatives, chosen annually by counties. Each county sends one senator and from one to four representatives. The governor is chosen for two years by the general assembly.
Commerce and JHnnnfacturcs.] In 1820 Georgia was the seventh state in the union in the value of her exports. The amount was $6,594,623, and consisted almost wholly of domestic produce. The staple of the state is cotton. The amount of shipping in 1815 was only 15,590 tons. The value of the manufactures for the year 1810 was estimated at g3.658,43l.
Islands.] There are numerous islands near the coast. The principal, beginning in the north, are, Tybce, on which is a light hou«o, at the mouth of Savannah river; Warsaw, Ossabav, St. Catherine'1*, and Saneln, between the mouths of the Ogcchee and the Alatamsha : >'j. Simons and Jykill, between the mouths of the Alataniaha and the Satilla ; and Cumberland island, which extends from the mouth of the Satilla to that of St. Mary's river.
Curiositij.] In the N. W. corner of the state, within half a mile of Tennessee river, is Nickojack cave. It commences in a precipice of the Raclvoon mountain, with a mouth 50 feet high, anj ICO wide. Its roof is formed by a solid and regular layer of limestone, having no support but the sides of the cave, and as level as the lloor of a house. The cave consists chiefly of one grand excavation through the rock-*, preserving for a great distance the same dimsiiMons as at its mouth. What i* more remakable still, it forms for the whole distance it has yet been explored, a walled and vaulted passage for a stream of cool and limpid water, which, where it leaves the cave, is 6 feet deep and 60 feet wide. ^ Col. Ore, of Tenuesso, explored this cave a few year* Sidcc. He' followed the course of the creek in a canoe for three miles within the cave, and w.is prevented lioru proceeding further by a tall of water.
Situation and Extent.] Alabama is bounded N. by Tennessee; E. by Georgia, from which it is separated in part by the Chatabeochee; S. by Florida and the gulf of Mexico; W. by the state of Mississippi. The western boundary begins on Tennessee river, at the mouth of Bear creek, and proceeds by a direct line to the N. W. corner of Washington county, and thence, due south, to the Gulf of Mexico. The southern boundary here commences, and proceeds eastwardly, including all the islands within six leagues of the shore, to the Perdido river ; thence, up the same, to the parallel of 31° N. lat. and thence, due east, along that parallel, to (he western boundary of Georgia. The area of the state is estimated at 44,000 square miles.
Divisions.] The state is divided into 24 counties.
Rivers.] The Tennessee enters the state at its N. E. corner, and curving towards the south, leaves it at its N. W. corner. The Cltatahooehce forms part of the boundary between Alabama and Georgia.
The Mobile is formed by the union of the Alabama and Tombigbee, 40 miles above the town of Mobile. After a course of about three miles, it divides, and enters Mobile bay in several channel?. The main western channel retains the name of Mobile river; the main eastern channel is the deepest and widest, and is called the Tensaw.
Alabama river is the eastern brut" h of the Mobile. It is formed by the Coosa and Tallapoosa, both of which rise in Georgia, near the sources of the Chatahoochee and Savannah rivers, and flowing in a S. VV. direction, unite 3 miles below fort Jackson ; after which the common stream, taking the name of Alabama river, runs in a S. S. W. direction till its union with the Tombigbee. From its mouth to Cahawba, 210 miles, it has 4 or 5 feet of water; and from Cahawba to the forks of the Coosa and Tallapoosa, 3 feet in the shallowest places. The Tallapoosa is navigable for boats to the Great falls, 38 miles. The navigation of the Coosa is interrupted by falls at the distance of 7 miles fronrils month. The principal tributary of the Alabama is the Cahazeba, which joins it at the town ofCahawba, 1G0 miles below the forks of the Coosa and Tallapoosa.
The Tombigbce rises in the N. W. part of the state, and flowing in a southerly direction, near the western boundary, for about 450 miles, joins the Alabama to form the Mobile. It k navigable for boats to the mouth of the Tusr.alqosa, its principal tributary. The Tuscalooia or Black Warrior is navigable for boats to the falls, situated near Int. 33° 15' N.
Bay.] Mobile bay, at the mouth of Mobile river, is 30 miles long, and on an average 12 broad. It communicates with the gulf of Mexico, by two straits, one on each side of Dauphin island, which lies at its mouth. The strait on the west side will not admit the passage of vessels drawing more thau 5 feet of water; that on the east side, between the island and Mobile point, has 18 feet of water, and the channel passes within a few yards of the point. There is a bar which runs across the bay near its upper end, over which there is only 11 feet of water.
Face of the Country, Soil and Production:] A ridge of highlands divides the waters which fall into the Tennessee on the north from those which flow into the gulf of Mexico on the south. North of this ridge is a limestone region; south of it the whole country is alluvial. The soil is generally fertile, particularly on the bank* of the rivers. The country bordering on Tennessee river, for the space of 100 miles east and west, and 40 from north to sooth, is regarded by some as the garden of North America. Thousands of emigrants from the neighboring states have resorted hither within a few years. Madison county, which lies in this region, 7 or 8. years ago was a mere wilderness. In 1820 it contained more than 17,000 inhabitants, and produced 15,000 bales of cotton or 4,500,000 pounds. Cotton is the staple production of the s'.ate, and the great article of export
Chief Townt.] Mobile is on the western channel of Mobile river, near its entrance into Mobile bay, 33 miles north of Mobile point. It is built on a high bank, in a dry and commanding situation, but the appr<Ach to the town for vessels drawing more than 8 feet of water is difficult and circuitous. It formerly belonged to the Spaniards, but came into the possession of the United States in 1313, since which it has rapidly increased in population, and an attempt has been made to make it the depot for the produce of the rich and extensive country on the Tombigbee nnd Alabama rivers. There is, however, a vigorous rivalry between this place and Blakely.
Blakely is a new town, laid out in 1813, on the Tensaw or eastern pullet of Mobile river, 6 miles frcm its mouth, and 10 E. N. E. of Mobile. It has in some points a decided superiority oier Mobile as an emporium for the commerce of the state. The same wind that enables n vessel to enter Mobile bay will carry her to the wharves of Oakery, which is not the case with Mobile. Another advantage is an open road to the* rapidly improving