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ornamented, will alfor.l a delightful walk for the inhabitants and visitors of the city. The amount expended hy the United Slates on the public buildings previously to their destruction hy the British in August 1814, was $1,214,291, and there have been appropriated towards rebuilding the same. g 1,207,768.
Besides the buildings and establishments above enumerated, Washington contains a city ball, a theatre, a college, 4 banks, several manufacturing establishments, and 12 houses for public worship, 3 for Presbyterians, 2 for Episcopalians, 2 for Baptists, 2 for Methodists, 2 for Catholics and I for Friends. There is a bridge about one mile long over the Potomac, three over the Eastern branch, and 2 over Rock creek. The population of Washington in 1800 was 3,210; in 1810, 8,208; and in 1820, 13,247, of whom 3.741 were blacks.
Alexandria is pleasantly situated on the west bank of the Potomac, 7 miles south of Washington. It has a commodious harbor, sufficiently deep for the largest ships, and is a place of extensive trade, especially in the article of flour. Population, in 1820, 8,218.
Georgetown is pleasantly situated on the east side of the Potomac, at the junction of Rock creek, which separates it from Washington city. 3 miles vaest of the Capitol. It contains a college and five houses of public worship, 2 for Episcopalians, 2 for Methodists, and one for Presbyterians. Population, in 1820, 7,360.
Education.] The Columbian college went into operation at the commencement of the year 1822. It has a president, 4 professors and 2 tutors. A large brick building has been erected for the accommodation of students, on the high ground north of the city of Washington, in a remarkably healthy situation, 3 miles from the capitol. A Baptist Theological seminary is to be connected with the institution.
The Roman Catholics have a college in Georgetown, established in 1799. It has 2 spacious brick edifices, finely situated, with a library of 7,000 volumes, and about 150 students. In 1815 it was raised by Congress to the rank of an university, and autbo iked to confer degrees
Situation and Extent.'] Virginia is bounded N. by Pennsylvania; N. E. by Maryland; E. by the Atlantic; 8. by North Carolina and Tennessee; and W. by Kentucky and Ohio, from the last of which it is separated by the river Ohio. It extends from 36° 30' to 40° 43 N. 1st. and from 75° 25' to 83* 40 W. Ion. The irea is estimated at 64,000 square miles
Virginia is divided into 102 counties,
15,966 19,750 11,104 10,423 16,742
5,237 19,305 11,211
6,631 16,687 17,569 4,789 16,569 18,008 5,255 13.290 18,003 20,944 11,023 13,792 3,789 9,909 11,404 23,103 6,704 12,017 24,706 4,521 9,678 10,007 5,598 7,041 6,858 19,060 10,889 15,267 5,700 10,932 11,600 5,624 10,139 3,161 13,087 6,399 11,798 6,116 9,697 5,517 4,256 4,247 22,702 13,746 10.662
York, Richmond, city,
Williamsburg, city, 1,402 Petersburg, town, 6,690 Norfolk, borough, 8,478
Mountains.] The Alleghany mountains pass through the western part of the state from S. W. to N. E. dividing the waters which flow east into Chesapeake bay from those which flow west into the Ohio. The Blue ridge is east of the Alleghany range, and runs parallel with it, dividing the state into two parts nearly equal Near the southern line of the state it bends westward, and unites with the Alleghany range. Its loftiest summits are the peaks of Otter, in Bedford county, the highest of which is 3,103 feet above the level of the sea, and is considered the roost elevated point of land in Virginia. East of the Blue ridze, and parallel with it, at the distance of about 30 miles, is the Simth mountain. Between the, Alleghany ridge and the Ohio there are also several ranges, irregular in their course, and le«s accurately known. The longest and most connected of these is the Laurel ridge. All these ranges continue their course in a northeasterly direction into Pennsylvania and Maryland. The Cumberland mountains form part of the boundary between Virginia and Kentucky.
Rivers.\ The Ohio forms the boundary between Virginia and the state of Ohio. Its principal tributaries from this state are. 1 The Big Sandy, which forms part of the boundary between^irginia and Kentucky. 2. The Great Kenhawa, which rises in the western part of North Carolina, in the Alleghany mountains ; and running north and northwest, joins the Ohio at Point Pleasant. About 100 miles from its mouth are the Great Falls, where the river descends perpendicularly 50 feet. The principal branch of the Kenhawa is Greenbrier river, which joins it tO or 50 miles above the falls 3. The Little Kenhawa, which joins the Ohio a little below Marietta, in the state of Ohio.
The Potomac rises in the Alleghany mountains, and during its whole course is the boundary between Virginia and Maryland. It fails into Chesapeake bay. between Point Lookout and Smith's point by a mouth ~!\ miles wide, after a course of more than 500 miles. It is navigable for ships of the greatest burdi n, 300 miles, to the -ity of Washington, 3 miles below the head of the tide. A'^ve that city there are. numerous falls and rapids, which obS!hii 'In- navigation, the river descending more than 1000 feet in a di-tance of 200 miles. Canals have been dug around many of H'ese falls, so that boats can now ascend above the month of the Shenandoah, 80 mile* from the city of Washington. The Shenand<ah is the principal tributary of the Potomac. It rises in Augusta county, near ths centre of the state, and running in a N. E. direction, ibrough a fertile country along the foot of the western declivity of the Blue ridge, join' the Potomac, after a course of aboot 200 miles, at Harper's ferry. Immediately after the junction of the Shenandoah, the Potomac bursts through the Blue ridge, presenting a scene which has been celebrated for its grandeur and magnificence.
The Rappahannock rises in the Blue ridge, and running in a S. E. direction abou 130 miles, enters Chesapeake bav 30 miles below the mouth of the Potomac. It is navigable for vessels drawing 16 feet of water to Fredericksburgh, 110 miles from its mouth. York river is formed hy the union of the Mattapony and Pamunky, and runs in a S. E. direction to Chesapeake bay, which it enters about 30 miles below the mouth of the Rappahannock It is navigable for the largest ships for more than 30 miles. James river rises in the Alleghany mountains, and after breaking through the Blue ridge, runs in a direction S. of E. and falls into the southern part of Chesapeake bay, after a course of more than 500 miles. It is navigable for sloops to Richmond, 150 miles from its mouth. At this city the navigation was formerly interrupted by the great falls, which in 7 miles descend 43 feet; but a canal around them is now completed, and the river has been rendered navigable 230 miles further for boats drawing 12 inches water. The principal tributary of James river is the .Appomattox, which rises in Campbell county, and after an easterly course of 120 miles, joins it at City point. At Petersburgh, 12 miles from its mouth, there are falls; but a canal has been dug around them, which has opened the navigation for 80 miles above that city. Elizabeth river is formed by the union of two branches at Norfolk, near the S. E. corner of the state, and falls into Hampton road, 8 miles below. At flood tide it has 18 feet water to Norfolk. Face of the Country and Soil.] Virginia may be divided into four zones, essentially differing from each other in soil and aspect of the country. The first extending from the sea-coast to the termination of tide water at Fredericksburgh, Richmond, &c. is low and flat, sometimes fenny, sometimes sandy, and on the margins of the rivers composed of a rich loam, covered with a luxuriant and even rank vegetation. This zone has been formed by a comparatively recent alluvion; marine shells and bones are every where found near the surface of the earth. The second division extends from the head of tide water to the Blue ridge. The surface near tide water is level; higher up the rivers it becomes swelling; and near the mountains often abrupt and broken. The soil is divided into sections, of very unequal quality, parallel to each other, and extending across the state. The parallel of Chesterfield, Henrico, Hanover, &c. is a thin, sandy, and except on the rivers, an unproductive soil. That of Goochland, Cumberland, Prince Edward, Halifax, &c. is generally fertile. Fluvanna, Buckingham, Campbell, and Pittsylvania, again, are poor; and Culpeper, Orange, Albemarle, Bedford, &c. have a rich, though frequently a stony and broken soil, on a substratum of tenacious. red colored clay. The scenery of the upper part of this section is highly picturesque and romantic. The third region is the valley between the Blue ridge and Alleghany mountains; a valley, which extends with little interruption, from the Potomac, across the state, to North Carolina and Tennessee; narrower, but of greater length than either of the preceding zones. The soil is a mould, formed on a bed of limestone, which often appears above the surface, in veins parallel to the mountains, and making every possible angle with the horizon. The surface of this valley is sometimes broken by sharp and solitary mountains, detached from the gen em I chain, the sides of tvhicb, nearly bare, or but thinly covered with blasted pine«, form disagreeable objects in the landscape. The bed of the valley is fertile, producing good crops of Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat, hemp, flax, be. The fourth and last division extends from the Alleghany mountains to the Ohio river, a country wild and broken, in some places fertile, but generally barren
Climate and Production*.] The spring is short and inconstant in Virginia; the summer long, but not oppressive more than two months. In the low country, the months of August, September and October are unhealthy. Autumn, in the mountains, is the finest season of the year. In the middle parts of the state constant fires are required during five months; none at all for five others, and irregularly during the remaining two- The country •ften suffers from drought in summer and autumn.—The staple products of Virginia are wheat, Indian corn and tobacco- Tobacco is raised in much less quantities than formerly, while the cultivation of wheat has greatly increased.
Minerals and Mineral Springe.] Coal of a good quality is found within 20 miles of Richmond on James river. In the valley between the Blue ridge and the Alleghany range there are many inexhaustible mines of iron ore, of a fine quality. In the country west of the Alleghany mountains there are mines of lead, iron, coal and salt Gypsum of a very good quality and in great abundance has also been found in Washington county. There are many mineral springs in Virginia. The hot and warm springs of Bath county, the sweet springs of Monroe, the sulphur springs of Greenbrier and of Montgomery, and the baths of Berkley county ■re much frequented. Indeed there is scarcely a county beyond the Blue ridge, which does notjeontain waters strongly impregnated with some mineral, besides lime which is common to them all.
Chief Town*.] Richmond, the metropolis of Virginia, is in Henrico county, on the north side of James river, immediately below the falls, and directly opposite Manchester, with which it is connected by two bridges- The situation is healthy, as well as highly picturesque and beautiful. A part of the city is built oa the margin of the river; the rest upon Sbockoe hill, which overlooks the lower part of the city, and commands an extensive and delightful prospect of the river and adjacent country.
Richmond is finely situated for a commercial and manufacturing town, being at the head of sloop navigation, on the falls of the river, and having an extensive back country, abounding with tobacco, wheat and coal. The canal around the Great falls commences about 7 miles above the city, and the whole descent to the basin on Shockoe hill is 43 feet. The basin is within the city, covering a *pace of several acres, and. around it are coal yards, lumber bouse* and landing places for the produce brought down the river. The descent from the basin to tide water is ubout 40 feet, and is effected by 13 lacks. The quantity of tobacco,