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gant academy of red free slone; a jail; an a!m«bou«e, theatre, arsenal and 11 houses for public worship. The city is supplied with excellent water from a spring;, 3 miles distant, K.v an aqueduct which conveys it to every house. Albany is finely situated for commerce, at the head of navigation for large sloops on the Hndson ; and the canals now in progress will soon connect it with lake Champlain and lake Eric. Several steam boats ply regularly between this city and New-York, and usually perform their passages in about 30 hours. The population of Albany in 1830 was 12,630.
TVoy, on the eaat bank of the Hudson, 6 miles above Albany, is considered the third town in the stale in commerce and wealth. The citv is regularly laid out on a plain, and makes :i beautiful appearance. It contains a courthouse, 3 banks, and 5 houses for public wor«hip. Troy is finely situated for a commercial and manufacturing town, being at the head of sloop navigation on the Hudson, and the creeks which here fall into the river affording numerous excellent situations for mills and manufactories. Population, in I8W, 5,364. Latmngburgh is a flourishing town, 3 miles north of Troy, on the same side of the river. rVaterford n on the Hudson, at its confluence with the Mohawk, opposite Lansingburgb, with which it is connected by a bridge, 10 miles above Albsay. Sandy Hill is a handsome compact village, on the east hank of the Hudson, 53 miles N. of Albany, immediately above Baker's falls, where the water descends 76 feet within 60 rods. Fort Edward is situated a few miles south of Sandy Hill, on the same side of the Hudson, near the great bend, and at the point where the canal from lake Champlain opens into the river. In the old wan it was an important military station,controlling the communication* between the Hadson, lake Champlain and lake George. rVkitthali is a thriving village, situated at the southern extremity ot lake Champlain. on both sides of Wood creek, at its entrance into the lake. The canal from lake Champlain to the Hudson commences here, and the trade of a considerable extent of country is concentrated in the village.
Hudson is finely situated 30 miles south of Albany, on the east bank of Hudson river, which is navigable to this place for the largest ships. The site of Hudson is a high point which projects into the river, terminating in a bold cliff, on each side of which are bays of considerable extent. The citv is regularly laid out, and in 1830 contained 5,310 inhabitants. The creeks on the borders of the town afford fine seats for mills and manufactories, and a few years since, Hudson was regarded as the third town in the state in manufactures and the fourth in commerce. Poughkeep$ie stands on the eaM hank of Hudson river, 85 mites south of Albany aod 76 N. of New-York. It is well situated for commerce aod manufactures, and in 1830 contained 5,736 inhabitants. jYevrburgh i« on the west bank of the Hudson, 6 miles below Poughkeepsie, and in 1820 contained 6,812 inhabitants.
ScJunectiuiy, the seat of Union college, is regularly laid out on a plain on the S. E. side of Mohawk river, 15 miles N. W. of Albanv. The city contained in 1820, 3,939 inhabitants. Ulica is situated on the south bank of the Mohawk, 93 miles W. N. VV. ut Aili.ua It is handsomely laid nut in streets and squares, and contained in 1320, 2,U72 inhabitants. This village is the central point wbeit the principal turnpikes from various part* of the state unite, and is a thoroughfare of the travel between a large section of the western country and the Atlantic ports. The Erin canal al-o passes'through it and will add to its commercial importance. Home, on the Mohawk, 15 miles N. VV. of I lica, is a place oi considerable business.
Plattsburgh is on lake Champiain, at the mouth of Saranac river. In the hay before this town the American fleet under Commodore M'Donough captured a British fleet of superior force on the 11 tb Sept. 1811. Ogdcmburg is 116 miles north of Utica, at the confluence of the Oswegaichie with the St. Lawrence. It has a safe and spacious harbor and is well situated for trade.
Sachet's Harbor is on Black river bay, a branch of Hungry bay, at the east end of lake Ontario. The harbor is perhaps the best on the lake. It is well situated both for shelter and defence, and is siitliciently deep for the largest vessels. Here are several ships of war, built during the late war, and among them [wo ships of the line of the first rate. Buffalo is situated at toe mouth of Buffalo creek, which discharges itself into Niagara river, just at the point where it leaves lake Erie. It has considerable trade, being situated on the best Channel of intercourse between the Atlantic and the regions of the west. ■ It has suffered hitherto for want of a good harbor, Buffalo creek being obstructed at its mouth by sand and gravel driven in by the wind Black Rock, on Niagara river, 2 miles below Buffalo, is at present the station for the steam boats and other vessels employed in the navigation of lake Erie
Auburn, the capital of Cayuga county, is situated at the outlet of Owasco lake, 170 miles west of Albany, on the great western turnpike. It has numerous mills nnd manufactories, and a state prison large enough to contain 1,000 prisoners. A I're»byleriaa Theological seminary has been lately established here. Genera is a beautiful and flourishing town on the west side of Seneca la!c« near its outlet.
Canals.] For several years past the state has been engaged io the improvement of its inland navigation, on a scale never before witnessed in this country, and with an energy and liberality which excite universal admiration. A grand canal is now in progress, which will open a water communication from Hudson river to lake Erie, and another is already completed, uniting the same river with lake Champiain.
The Erie canal, when completed, will be 350 miles Ions; The route is as follows: Beginning at Albany, on the Hudson, U passes up the west bank of that river nearly to the mouth of tb* .Mohawk; then along the south bank of (he Mohawk, through the counties of Albany, Schenectady, Montgomery, Herkimer and Oneida to Rome. From Konie it proceeds in a S. VV. dtrecSun, aad crosses Oneida creek into Madison county, whore it tarns tt» the west and panes through Onondaga county, approaching within a mile and a half of Salina, at the south end of Onondaga lake. It crosses 9ea*ca river at Montezuma, and passing by Lyons ami Palmyra, strike* the Genesee river at Rochester. West of the Genesee river, it runs on the sooth sWe of the Uidge road, and parallel with it for 60 miles, and then turnlav; to the south, joins Tonnewantn creek 11 miles from its mouth in Niagara river. The channel of the Tonnewnnta will be made a«e of for these 11 miles, and the canal will then proceed in • southerly direction, from the month of the Tonnewanta, along the east bank of Niagara river, to Buffalo on lake Erie.
Thte route mny be divided into three sections. The western section extends from Buffalo to Monteznma on Seneca river, 160 miles: through this distance, the level of the canal uniformly descends from the lake, and the whole descent is 194 feet by 2o locks. The middle section extends from Montezuma to Romp, 77 miles; through this distance the level of the canal uniformly ascends, and the whole ascent is 49 feet. The eastern section extends from Rome to Albany, 113 miles: through this distance the level of the canal uniformly descends, and the whole descent is 419 feet by -16 locks. The aggregate of rise and fall is therefore #62 feet, and the difference of levels between lake Erie and the Hudson, 564 feet.
The canal is 40 feet wide on the surface, 88 at the bottom, and 4 feet deep. It was estimated by the commissioners in 1617 that the whole expense would he £1,881,733, viz: the western section £1,856,862; the middle section, £853,186; the eastern section, £2,196,690 ; and general expenses, £75,000. The canal was commenced on the 4th of July 1817, and (he commissioners anticipate its entire completion before the close of the year 1823.
Among the benefits of this grand enterprise, it is expected, that besides furnishing an outlet for the agricultural produce of Tost and fertile regions, salt may be supplied to the Atlantic states from the great salt works at Salina, cheaper than from abroad. In the progress of the canal also, gypsum of the best quality has been discovered, and in sufficient quantities for the supply of the whole United States.
The Cktimpbiin canal is 2* miles long, from Whitehall at the mouth of Wood creek, on lake Champlain, to Fort Edward on the Hudson. It is 40 feet wide at the surface, 28 at the bottom, and 4 feet deep. The locks are 90 feet long, and If feet wide in the clear. The descent from the summit level to lake Champlain is 54 feet, and from the summit level to the Hudson, 30 feet. The expense was about £260,000 The canal was opened in the summer of 18?), and though the navigation was interrupted for three month*, con«iderable quantities of lumber passed through it. By means of dam*, locks and other improvements, a good boat navigation has been opened on the Hudson, from Port Edward as far down as Saratoga falls. At Saratoga falls a ranal wa* commenced in 1820, which is to extend along the west bank of the Hudson to Waterford, at the mouth of the Mohawk, a distance of 27 miles. The whole expense of continuing the Champlain canal from Fort Edward to Waterford, was originally estimated at $621,000, but from a more minute examination of the country, and the discovery of unexpected facilities, the estimate is now reduced to $400,000. It is expected that the whole will be completed, and a navigation opened from lake Champlain to the tide waters of the Hudson in 1822. Plans have been recently submitted to the legislature of the state for improving the navigation of the Hudson below the head of tide waters, so as to admit of the ascent of ships to Albany.
At Rome there is a canal, one mile and an half long, connecting Mohawk river with Wood creek, and opening a communication through this creek, Oneida lake, and Oswego river, into lake Ontario.
Education.] Columbia college, formerly called King's college, in the city of New-York, was established in 1754. It has a president, 5 professors, 140 students, a library of 3,000 or 4,000 volumes, a valuable philosophical apparatus, and an annual revenue of more than $4,000. A Faculty of medicine was formerly attached to the institution, but in 1814 it was separated from it.
Union college, in Schenectadv, was incorporated in 1794, and is a very flourishing institution. The college edifices are finely situated on an elevated spot of ground, and contain accomodations for more than 200 students. The philosophical apparatus is respectable. The library contains about 5,000 volumes. The officers in 1820 were a president, 4 professors, and 2 tutors. The number of students at the same period was 245.
Hamilton college, situated near the village of Clinton, 10 milei W. S. W. of Utica, was incorporated in 1812, and has been liberally patronised by the legislature and by individuals. It has a president, 3 professors, 2 tutors, a library of about 2,000 volumes, and 100 students. 1 he college buildings are about a mile west of the village, on a high hill, commanding a very extensive prospect.
A college of Physicans and Surgeons was establised in the city of New-York in 1807, and in 1814 the Faculty of Medicine which was formerly attached to Columbia college, was united with it. Thus united, the college of Physicans has 7 professor*, and is one of the most respctable and flourishing medical institutions in the country. The Elgin Botanic garden is attached to this institution.
The Common School fund consisted in 1822 of $1,139,130 and 25,000 acres of land. It yields annually the sum of $77,417, which is appropriated to the support of common schools, and it appears from the report of the Superintendant in 1G20, that nine tenths of all the children in the slate between 5 and 15 years of age received instruction.—Besides the common schools and tbe colleges, there are 40 or 50 incorpornled academies in the state. All these institutions are under the supeiintendance of a body o: literary men, called “ the Regents of the University of NewYork.” The Regents are appointed by the legislature, and it is their duty to visit the colleges, academies and schools; to inspect the system of education, and make yearly report thereof to the legislature; to incorporate colleges and academies, and also to distribute among these institutions the income of a fund appropriated by the legislature to the encouragement of literature. The Literature fund amounted in 1822 to $99,535, and yielded an income of $5,142. Religion.] The denominations of Christians in this state are Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Associate Reformed Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Baptists, Methodists, Friends, German Lutherans, German Calvinists, Moravians, Catholics and Shakers. Religion is not supported by law. All denominations are left at liberty to support their own ministry in such way as is most agreeable to them. Government.] The Legislature consists of a Senate of 32 members, and of a House of Representatives, who may not exceed 150. The state is divided into four great districts for the choice of Senators. They hold their seats for four years, and one fourth part is elected every year. The Representatives are chosen annually by counties. The Governor and Lieut. Governor are elected for three years. A Council of Appointment, consisting of the Governor and a Senator from each of the four great districts, is chosen annually by the Legislature. The number of officers annually appointed by this Council is enormous; embracing most of the subordinate officers of the state. Population.] The population of New-York has increased with astonishing rapidity for the last 70 years. In 1756 it was 110,317; in 1790, 340,120 ; in 1800, 586,050; in 1810, 959,049; and in 1820, 1,372,812, of whom 10,088 were slaves and 29,289 free blacks. The whole population has thus more than quadrupled within the last 30 years. The Dutch were the original settlers of the state, and their descendants constitute still a respectable Portion of the population; but probably two thirds of the present inhabitants are emigrants from New-England or their immediate descendants. Next to the New-Englanders and the Dutch, are the English, Irish, Scotch and French. Indians.] There are about 5,000 lndians in this state. They are principally the remains of the Iroquois or Six Nations, a powerful confederacy of Indians, who formerly occupied a great part of the state. The names of the tribes are, Mohawks, Senecas, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Tuscaroras. The Mohawks live at present on Grand river in Upper Canada; the Senecas, on Genesee river, Alleghany river, Buffalo creek, and other places in the western part of the state ; the Oneidas, at Oneida castle, near Oneida lake; the Onondagas, principally at Onondaga village, near the lake of the same name, and the Cayugas near Buffalo ; and the Tuscaroras, at a village a few miles south of Oneida castle. The Stockbridge Indians, about 400 in number, live in a place called New Stockbridge, 7 miles S. of Oneida castle.