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It receives the waters of Seneca lake through Seneca river, which enters it at its northern extremity, and soon after issues from it again, forming the outlet of its waters. 5. Sentca lake lies west of Cayuga lake, and nearly parallel with it, at the distance of from
6 to 15 miles. It is 35 miles long and from 9 to 4 broad. It receiv%s the waters of Crooked lake from the west, and discbarge* itself at its northern extremity through Seneca river into Cayuga lake. 6. Crooked lake is about 18 miles long, and communicates through an outlet at its N. E. extremity with Seneca lake.
7 Canandaigua lake is a beautiful collection of water about 14 miles long and on an average one broad. It communicates with Seneca river through Canandaigua river, which issues from tbe northern extremity of the lake.
Rivers.] Delaware river forms part of the boundary between this state and Pennsylvania. Niagara river connect* lake Erie with lake Ontario, and forms part of the western boundary. The St. Lawrence separates New-York from Upper Canada. £<jji river is the name given to a short strait, which connects Long-Island sound with New-York harbor.
Hudson river, the great river of this state, and one of the best for navigation in America, rises in the mountainous region between lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence, and pursuing a southerly course of more than 300 miles, falls into the Atlantic below New-York city. It is navigable for ships to Hudson ; for large sloops to Albany, 100 miles from New-York ; and for small sloops to Troy, at the head of the tide, 6 miles further. The |>a*"*ce of this river through the Highlands without any impediment Is its navigation is a singular fact in Geography. The Highlands are about 16 miles wide, and are celebrated for their romantic tcenery. ». aj
The Mohawk, the great western branch of the Hudson, rise* in Oneida county, and running south of east, passes by Rome, L'tica and Schenectady, and discharges itself into the Hudson through several mouths, between Troy and Waterford, after a coarse of about 135 miles. The navigation of the river in interrupted by numerous rapids and falls, the principal of which is tbe Canoes, two miles from its mouth. The river, which is here between 300 and 400 yards broad, descends, at high water, in one sheet, to the depth of 70 feet. About three fourths ot a mile below, a bridge has been thrown across the Mohawk, from which the view of the falls is inexpressibly grand.
The principal river whirh falls into lake Champlain is the Saranae, which discharges itself at Plattsburg, alter a norlh«a*lerly course of about 65 miles.
The principal rivers which fall into the St. Lawrence from this state are, the St. Regis, Grass and Racket rivers, all of which discharge themselves near thp village of St. Regis, on the northern boundary of the state; and the Oswrgntehie, which empties itself at Ogdensburg after a course of 120 miles.
The following are the principal rivers which fall into lake Ontario. 1. Black river rises in the high lands northeast of Rock., and after a northerly course discharges itself into Hungry bay near Sacket's harbor. 2. Oswego river forms the outlet of Oneida lake, and is 42 miles long. Its principal tributary is Seneca river, which issues from the north end of Seneca lake, and running east enters Cayuga lake, but almost immediately leaves it again, and after receiving the waters of Canandaigua, Owasco, Skeneateles and Onondaga lakes, discharges itself into the Oswego at Three river point, 24 miles from lake Ontario. 3. Genesce river rises in Pennsylvania, and running in a northerly direction across the western part of this state, discharges itself into lake Ontario. At Rochester, a few miles from its mouth, there are two falls, one of 96 and the other of 75 feet. About 70 miles above Rochester there are two other falls, only a mile apart, one of which is 60 and the other 90 feet. Tonnezanta creek rises in Genesee county, and after a westerly eourse of 90 miles through the Tonne wanta valley, discharges itself into Niagara river about 12 miles from lake Erie. It is a deep sluggish stream, boatable 30 miles.—The Susquehannah rises in Otsego lake, in the county of the same name, and runs in a southwesterly direction into Pennsylvania. Its principal tributaries from this state are, the Chenango, which rises in Madison county, and flowing south through the counties of Chenango and Broome, joins the Susquehannah 18 miles east of Oswego, after a course of 90 miles; and the Tioga, which rises in Pennsylvania, and running N. E. into this state receives the Conhocton at Painted post, and then turning to the S. E. re-enters Pennsylvania, and meets the Susquehannah at Tioga point, 3 miles from the boundary line. .Niagara Falls.] The falls in Niagara river are one of the grandest curiosities on the globe. The river flows from south to north, and is 35 miles long. At its efflux from lake Erie it is three quarters of a mile wide, from 40 to 60 feet deep, and flows with a current of 7 miles an hour. As it proceeds, the river widens, and embosoms several considerable islands, particularly Grand and Navy islands, which terminate in beautiful points a mile and a half above the falls. A little below the termination of these istands, commence the rapids, which extend a mile, to the precipice, in which space the river descends 57 feet. At the precipice it is three fourths of a mile wide. Here Goat island divides the river into two channels; and the channel between Goat island and the eastern or United States’ short, is also divided by a small island. Over the precipice the river sails perpendicularly about 160 feet. Much the greater part of the water passes in the channel between Goat island and the Canada shore, and this fall is called from its shape the Horse-shoe fall. Between Goat island and the small island in the eastern channel, the stream is only 8 or 10 yards wide, forming a beautiful cascade. Between this small island and the United States' shore the sheet of water is broad, and the descent is greater by a few feet than at the Horse-shoe fall, but the stream is comparatively shallow. The falls are seen to advantage from different positions. The best single view is that from the Table rock on the Canada side of the river; and the best view of the rapids is from Goal island, which is ingeniously connected by a bridge with tbe eastern shore. The view from the river below is the most entire. Below the falls the river runs between perpendicular bank*, 300 feet high, to QueenstowB, 7 miles; thence to lake Ontario the country is open.
Soil and Productions.] The eastern half of Long island is sandy and barren; the western part is fertile, and in a high state of cultivation. The country on the Hudson, below the mouth of the Mohawk, has a good soil, particularly tbe counties of West Chester and Dutchess, which are under very good culrivatien. The alluvial flats of Columbia county and some parts of Rensselaer are very extensive and rich. A district west of Albany, comprising several counties, consists of sandy plains interspersed with marshes. The alluvial flat* on the Mohawk are extensive and very fertile. The country north of the Mohawk is less accurately known, but many parts of it are fertile, particularly tbe lands on Black river, which are among the best in (he state. The va>t elevated plain which covers the western part of the state, and includes the country occupied by the small lakes, has a rich soil, equally well adapted to grain and grass. The alluvial flats are here extensive; those on Genesee river include about 60,000 acres. Wheat is raised in this state in greater abundance than all other grains. Indian corn, rye, oats, flax, and hemp, are also extensively cultivated.
Minerals.] Iron ore is found in many parts of the state of an excellent quality and in inexhaustable quantities. There are indications of the abundant existence of coal in the western parts of the state. Lime, marble, lead, marl, flint, gypsum, slate for building, clays for manufacturing, and ochres of various kinds, have been discovered in great quantities. Salt springs exist ia Cayuga, Seneca, Ontario and Genesee counties, but the principal salt works are in Onondaga county, at the village of Salina, situated on the S. E- side of Onondaga lake. Every gallon of water here yields fr>m 16 to 27 ounces of salt, being much stronger than any other -nit springs in the United States. The quantity of salt manufactured in 1811 in Onondaga county was 453,840 bushels, and it may be increased to any extent.
.Mineral springs.] The celebrated mineral springs ofSaratoga are spread over a tract of about J 2 miles in length in Saratoga county, and are called by a variety of local names. The most voted are (hose at the villages of Ballston and Saratoga, which are superior to any other in America. The names of the principal springs in Saratoga, are Rock spring, Congress spring and Columbia spring. These springs afford relief in many obstinate diseases, and during the summer months, are the report of the gay and fashionable, as well as of invalid*, from all parts of the United States. Large houses of entertainment, with neat bathing houses, are erected for the convenience of visitors.
Chief Towns.] New-york, the first commercial city in America, is on Manhattan island, at (he confluence of Hudson and East ri vers, in lat. 40° 42' N. 90 miles N. E. of Philadelphia and 210 S. W. of Boston. The bland is 15 miles long, and on an average 1 !s broad, and is separated from New-Jersey by the Hudson; from the continental pari of New-York by Haarlem creek ; and from Long island, by East river.
The compact part of the city is at the south end of the island, and extends along the Hudson about 2 miles; and from the Battery, in the S. W. corner, along East river, nearly 4 miles. Its circuit is about 8 miles. The streets of the ancient part, at the iouth end of the city, are frequently narrow and crooked, but all the northern part has been recently laid out, and with much better taste. The principal street is Broadway, which is 80 feet wide, and extends from the Battery in a N. E. direction, through the centre of the city, for three miles. It is generally well built, and a part of it is splendid. The houses in the city generally, were formerly of wood, but these are fast disappearing, and .substantial brick houses, with slated roofs, are rising in their place. Among the public buildings the most prominent is the City Hall, which is the most beautiful edifice in the Uniied States. It is 216 feet long, 106 broad, and, including the attic storj', 5G high. The front and both ends above the basement story, are built of white marble. The expense was $500,000. It is occupied by the city council in their meetings, and by the different courts of law.—The New-York Hospital comprises the Hospital for the reception of the sick and disabled, the lunatic asylum, and the lying in hospital. The annual expenditure is about $-10,000. During the year 1819, 1,725 patients were admitted, of whom 1,320 were cured. The Alms House is a plain stone structure recently erected on East river, 2 miles from the City Hall. It is 3 stories high 320 feet long and 50 wide. The expense, including the work house, penitentiary, and other buildings connected with it was $418,791. The number of poor in this institution for the the year 1816 was 1,487 and the expense of the establishment $90,886. The State prison is on the Hudson, at Greenwich, about 1J mile from the City Hall. It is constructed of free stone. The number of prisoners in 1819 was 604. The original cost of the establishment was $208,846, and large sums have been voted by the legislature to defray the annual expenses. The New-York Institution is near the City Hall, and its apartments are occupied by the literary and philosophical society; the historical society, which has a library of about 5,000 volumes, and a permanent fund of $12,000; the American academy of Fine Arts, which has a valuable collection of paintings and statues; the Lyceum of natural history; and the American museum.
Among the other institutions are a theatre, Yauxhall and other public gardens, an orphan asylum, au asylum for the deaf and dumb, 11 banks, 11 insurance companies, numerous benevolent and charitable institutions, and 57 houses for public worship, viz 18 for the different classes of Presbyterians, 12 for Episcopalians, 8 for Methodists, 6 for Baptists, 3 for Friends, 2 for Roman Catholics, and one each for German Lutherans, German Calvinists*
« Moravian', Unirersalists, Jews, seamen, Swedenborgians, and Unitarians.
The Battery is n beautiful open space, containing several acres of ground, at the S. W. point of the city. It commands a fine view of the harbor, with its shipping, islands, and fortifications, and is much frequented by the citizens. The Park is a handsome common, in front of the City Hall, containing 4 acres, and, is also a place of fashionable resort. The Elgin Botanic garden is 3i miles from the City Hall, and contains about 20 acres. It was founded in I fit II by Dr. David Hosack, and was purchased by the state in 1810, for $74,268, and presented to the Medical college.
New-York harbor is a large bay, 9 miles long and 4 broad, which -spreads before the city on the south side, having Long island on the east, and Staten island and New-Jersey on the west On the north it receives the Hudson; on the N. E. it communicates with Long island sound through East river; on the west with Newark bay, through the Kills; and on the south with the Atlantic ocean through the Narrows. It embosoms several small islands, as Governor's island.Bedlow's island and Ellis's island, near the city of New York, on each of which are fortifications. The harbor is decp enough for the largest vessels, well secured from wind and storms, sufficiently spacious for the most numerous tleef. ami the currents are so rapid, that it is seldom obstructed by ice.
New-York is admirably situated for commerce, on an excellent harbor, at the mouth of a noble river, with an extensive, fertile, and populous back country. It imports most of the goods consumed in the state of New-York, the northern half of NewJersey, and the western parts of New-England; and exports the produce of the same section. This city owns more shipping than any other in the Union, and more than half as much as the city of London. The amount of shipping in 1816 was 899,611 toos. The revenue from the customs, collected at this port, is about one fourth of the whole revenue of the United States: in 1815, it was $14,409,790. The revenue of the city for city purposes, for the year ending May 12, 1817, was $483,011.
Few cities in the world have increased so regularly and rapidly as New-York. In 1697, the population was 4,302; in I75S 13,040; in 1790, 33,131 ; in 1800, 60,489 ; in 1810, 96,373; and in 1820, 123,706. The inhabitants are from many different nations. More than one third are of New-England origin. After the«e, the most numerous are the Dutch and Scotch, and then the English, Irish, and French.
Albany, the seat of government, and the second city in the .state in population, wealth and commerce, is situated on the west bank of the Hudson, 160 miles north of New-York. A large proportion of the houses are built of brick, with slate or tile roots, and the style of building has very much improved within a few years. Among the public buildings are a state boos*, eubslantialy built of stone, at an expense of $116,000; ancle*