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seats in the Senate. The possession of a freehold estate is a me zessary qualification of a voter.
JManufactures and Commerce.] In no state in the Union is se large a proportion of the population and capital employed in manufactures as in Rhode-Island. The principal article is cotton goods, which are manufactured in large quantities in Providence and the vicinity. There are now more than 90 cotton mills in the state, many of which are extensive establishments.—The exports are fish, beef, pork, cattle, lumber, &c. Cotton goods and other manufactured articles are also transported in considerable quantities to the Southern states. In 1819 there were 33 banks in this state, of which 7 were at Providence, b at Newport, and 5 at Bristol.
Situation and Extent.] Connecticut is bounded N. by Massachusetts; E. by Rhode-Island ; S. by Long-Island sound; and W. by New-York. It extends from 41° to 42°2'N, lat. and from 71° 29' to 73°24' W. lon. It is 72 miles long on the northern boundary and 45 on the eastern. The area is estimated at 4,674
square miles. Divisions.] The state is divided into 8 counties and 122 towns.
Counties. Towns. Pop. in 1810. Pop. in 1820. Chief towns.
1. New-London, 15 34,707 35,943 New-London. 2. Middlesex, 7 20,723 22,405 Middletown. 3. New-Haven, 17 37,064 39,616 New-Haven. 4. Fairfield, 18 40,950 42,739 Fairfield. 5. Litchfield, 22 41,375 41,267 Litchfield. 6. Hartford, 18 44,733 47,264 HARTFord. 7. Tolland, 10 13,779 14,330 Tolland. 3. Windham, 15 28,611 31,684 Brooklyn. Total, 122 261,942 275,248
The four first named counties border on Long-Island sound from east to west ; the four last border on Massachusetts from west to east. Hartford and Middlesex counties are intersected by Connecticut river.
Face of the Country.]. The face of the country is greatly diversified by hills and vallies. The hills are generally of a moderate size, and occur in quick succession, presenting to the traveller a beautiful and constantly varying prospect. There are several ranges of mountains which come from Massachusetts, and traversing the state from north to south terminate near Long-Island sound. Beginning in the east, the first is the Lyme range, which rum on the east tide of Connecticut river, tt the distance of 8 or 10 miles, and terminate* in Lyme at I he mouth of the river. Tim range throws off a branch in Glastenbury, which runt S. W. acrou Connecticut river and terminates in East Haven. The next is the Mount Tom range, which ruoa on the west aide of the Connecticut, in a direction nearly south, and terminates at NewHaven in a fine perpendicular bluff called East Rock. The Green mountain range is still farther west. It runs nearly parallel with the Mount Tom range and terminates also in New-Haven in a noble bluff called West Rock. The Taghkannue rang* runs on ihe west side of the Hooestennuc along the western boundary of the state, and terminates in Norwalk near the S. W. extremity of the state. There are no lofty summits in these ranges. The highest are the Blue hills, in Soothington, in the Mount Tom ranee, and these are supposed not to exceed 1,000 feet in height.
Soil and Productions.) The soil is generally excellent, and fitted for all the purposes of agriculture. Much of it has been under actual cultivation for the greater part of a century, and atill retains its origioal strength. The county of Fairfield and the interval land on Connecticut river are the best in the state. Indian corn, rye, grass and potatoes are tbe principal agricultural productions. Oats and flax are abo raised extensively. Almost every farm has one or more orchards, and great quantities of cider are annually made. The crops of onions, turnips and beans are also of great consequence to the Connecticut farmer. Immense Dumbers of neat cattle and of hogs are fattened upon maize. Cheese is made in great quantities and constitutes the chief produce of several towns.
River*.) Tbe following are the principal rivers, beginning in tbe east; 1. Tbe Thame* is formed by She tucket and Yantic rivers which unite at Norwich landing; whence the commou stream pursues a southerly course for 14 mile*, and discharges itself into Long-Island sound at New-London. It is navigable for sea vessels to Norwich. The Shetuckct is formed by the union of tbe Willimaniic. Mount Hope and several other streams, which rise in tbe northern part of the state and unite in the town of Windham; whence the common stream proceeds in a S. E. direction, and after receiving the ^uinibaug from the east, joins Yantic river and forms the Thames. The Qutntoaug rises on the borders of Massachusetts, and running south joins the Shelucket 3 miles above Norwich landing.
2. The Connecticut comes from Massachusetts, and running at first in a southerly and afterwards in a southeasterly direction, falls into Long-Island sound between Say brook and Lyme. There is a bar at tbe mouth which at full tide has 10 feet water. The river is navigable for vessels drawing 8 feel of water to Hartfnrd, BO miles- Farmington river is a western branch of tbe Connecticut. It rises in Massachusetts, and runs in a southeasterly direction to Farmington in this elate, where it turns to the north and running at the foot of the western declivity, of the Mount .Tom raoge of mountains for lb nukes, is joined by Salmon river and rushes through an opening in the range and down a considerable cataract, after which it is called Windsor river, under which Dame it pursues a southeasterly direction, and joins the Connecticut 4 miles above Hartford. A canal is in contemplation to connect Farmimrton river with New-Haven harbor.
3. The Hooatennuc rises in the northern part of Berkshire county in Massachusetts and running: in a southerly direction, between the Taghkannnc and Green mountain ranges, enters this •late near its N. W. corner, between the townships of Canaan and Salisbury. About 7 miles from the line it is precipitated over a perpendicular declivity 60 feet in height; after which it runs at first in a southerly and then in a southeasterly direction (ill it falls into the sound between Milford and Stratford. A bar of shell* at its mouth prevents the entrance of large vessels, it is navigable for sloops and brigs 12 miles, to Derby.
Chief Towns.] There are 5 incorporated cities in Connecticut, viz. Hartford, New-Haven, Middletown, New-London and Norwich. *
Hartford, one of the capitals of the state, is regularly laid out on the west bank of Connecticut river, 50 miles from its mouth, it is advantageously situated for trade, being at the head of stoop navigation, and huving an extensive, fertile and thrifty back coontry- The city is generally well built and makes a handsome appearance. Among the public buildings are a state bouse; an asylum for the deaf and dumb, and 6 houses of public worship. There are also 8 distilleries, and manufacturing establishments ■ of various kinds. An elegant bridge over the Connecticut, built at an expense of more than f,100,000, connects the town'with K.ast Hartford. Population of the city iu 1820, 1,720, and including the township 6,901.
A'eso-Haven, the seat of Yale college and the semi-capiial oi Connecticut, lies around the head of a harbor, which nets op 4 miles from Long-Island sound, 34 miles S. S W. of Hartford. The city ia built on a large plain, encircled on all sides except those occupied by the water, by a fine amphitheatre of hill* and mountains, several of which present bold and perpendicular front*, ■early 400 feet in height. The city is divided into two pm., called the Old and New Townships. The old town i« laid oel in a large square, divided into 9 smaller squares; each bS rod* On a side, and separated by streets I rods in breadth. The central square is open, and is believed to he one of the handsome*! in the United Slates. On and around it are moot of the pubhc buildings, viz. a slate house; six college edifices; 3 eieg.int churches, 2 for Congregitiuttalists and 1 for Episcopalians; and a Methodist church.
The houses in New-Haren are generally built of wood, in a neat and commodious, but not in an expensive style. Several of those recently erected, however, are elegant and stately edifice* of brick. The principal streets are ornamented with trees, and moat of the houses are funn*hed with a piece of ground io the rear, sufficiently largo for a garden and fruit trees, giving to tike city a rural anil pleasant appearance. In ihe north corner of the town, a burying ground has been laid out on a plan entirely new. The field ia divided into parallelograms, which are subdivided into family burying place*. The ground ia planted with tree*; the monument* are almost universally of marble, and a considerable number are obelisks. The whole baa a solemn and impressive appearance.
The harbor is well defended from winds, but is shallow and gradually tilling up with mud. This difficulty has been remedied 10 part by the consi ruction of a wharf uearly a mile in length, extending into the harbor. Population of the city in 1820, 7,147, and including the township, 8,337.
Middlttoun is pleasantly situated on the west bank of Connecticut river 31 miles from its mouth. Id miles south of Hartford, sod 26 N. E. of New-Haven. It is a flourishing town, and has considerable commerce. There are also several important manufactories in the town. mo>t of tbem recently established. Among them are a sword factory, where about 5,000 swords are annually manufactured; a pistol factory, which employs GO or 70 men, wbo make 8,000 or 10,000 pistols annually; a rifle factory, which employs from 25 to 30 hands, and produces 1.000 or 1,200 rifles in a year; an ivory comb factory, and a factory of block-tin buttons. These nave all been established since 1813, and most of the swords, pistols and rifles have been sold to tbe government of the United States. Population of tbe city in-1820, 2,618 ; and including the township, 6,479.
New-London is near the S. E corner of the state, on the west bank of the Thames, 3 miles from its entrance into the sound. The harbor is the best in the stale, having 5 fathoms water, and being safe, spacious and accessible at all seasons of the year; but it is easily blockaded, as was proved during the late war. It is defended by two forts on opposite sides of the river. Tbe inhabitants own considerable shipping, employed in tbe coasting trade, the trade with the We»t Indies, and the fisheries. Population in 1820, 3,330.
Norwich a on the Thames, 14 miles north of New-London and 38 S. E- of Hartford. It is favorably situated for trade, being at tbe head of navigation on the river, anil having an extensive and productive back country. The Yantic river, which here unites with the Shetucket to form the Thames, has a cataract about a mile from its mouth, remarkable for its romantic scenery, and affording fine sites for mill* and manufacturing establishment*. The point of land formed by the union of Shetucket and Yantic rivers is called Chelsea landing:, and is the seat of most of the commercial business of the place. Population of the city in 1820, 2,983, and including the town-hip. 3.631.
LiiehfielU, the seat of a celebrated law school and of Morris academy, is SO miles W. of Hartford aod 36 N. N. W. of NewHaven. Wtlhtr/firld is pleasantly situated on the went hank of Conecticut river 4 miles below Hartford. It ix famous for raining great quantities of onion-. S tgbrook, one of the oldest towns in the country, stands on the west bank of Connecticut river at its mouth. Stafford, famous for its mineral spring and iron works, is 27 miles N. E. of Hartford. Fairfield, the chief town in Fairfield county, is on the coast, 22 miles W. S. W of New-Haven. The borough of Bridgeport, 4 miles N. E. of Fairfield, has on* of the best harbors in the state and is a thrifty commercial place. j
Education.] Yale college, in New-Haven, is one of the oldest and most respectable colleges in the United States. It was founded in 1701, and was named after Governor Yale one of ita most liberal benefactors. Its officers in 1821 were a president; 9> professors, including 4 medical professors; and 6 tutors. The college library contains about 7,000 volumes, and the students have libraries amounting to 2,000 more. A cabinet of minerals was deposited here in 1811 by George Gibbs Esq. the original cost of which is said to have been £4,000 sterling.
The college buildings consist of 4 spacious edifices, each 4 stories high, and each containing 32 rooms for students; a chapel, containing al*o a philosophical chamber; a lyceum, containing the library and recitation rooms; a laboratory; and a dining ball.
A medical institution is connected with the college. It was established in 1813, and has 4 professors, a valuable anatomical museum and a medical library. The whale number of students in 1821 was 407; of whom 78 were medical students, 4 resident graduates and 325 under-graduates. The whole number educated here from the establishment of the institution to 1820 was 3,478; of whom there were then living 1,884, a greater number than from any other college in the United States. Efforts arc now making for the establishment of a Theological seminary, to be connected with the college.
The American Atylumfor the education of the deaf and dumb, established in Hartford in 1817, was the first institution of Use kind in America. It is ander the direction of Rev. Thomas H. Gallaudet, who visited the celebrated schools in Europe to quality himself for the charge. He has 4 assistants. The number of pupils in 1819 was 50. The Congress of the United States has made a generous grant to the Asylum of more than 23,000 acres of land ; and the Legislatures of some of the states have made appropriations for the support of pupils. The success of the institution has hitherto been highly gratifying, and the improvement of the pupils has equalled the most sanguine expectations of their friends.
There is a Foreign minion school at Cornwall, 10 miles N. W. of Litchfield, under the direction of the American Board el* Commissioners for Foreign Missions. It was established in 1817 for the purpose of educating heathen youth from various parts of the world. After they bare received their education, they are to be sent home to instruct their own countrymen. In 1821 the number of heathen pupils was 29; of whom 7 were Sandwich islanders, 1 Otaheitan, 1 New Zealander, 1 Malay and 19 AraeT