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in proportion to the population. The amount of shipping owned here in 1315 was 143,420 tons; a greater amount than belonged to any other port in the United States, except New-York. The country in the immediate vicinity is fertile and populous, and connected with the capital by fine'roads, while the Middlesex canal opens a witor communication with the interior of NewHampshire. The population of Boston in 1800 was 24,937; in 1810, 33,250; and in 1820, 43,298. The inhabitants have long been celebrated for their enterprise and intelligence, and for the liberilily with which they support religious, literary and humane institutions.
The country around Boston is the admiration of every traveller of taste. The view from the dome of the State house surpasses any thing of the kind in this country, and is not excelled by that from the castle hill of Edinburgh, or that of the bay of Naples from the castle of St. Elmo. Here may be seen at one view, the shipping, the harbor rtriegated with inlands and alive with business: Charles river and it* beautiful country ornamented with elegant country seats; and more than 20 flourishing towns. The hills are tiivlv cultivated, au<l rounded by the hand of nature with singular felicity.
Salem, the second town in New-England in commerce, wealth, and population, is built on a low peninsula, formed by two small inlets of the sea, called North and South rivers; over the former of which is a bridge 1,500 feet long, connecting the town with Beverly: the other separates it from Marblehead. anil forms the principal harbor. The harbor is so shallow that r«v S'-ls drawing more than 12 feet water must load and unload at a distance from the wharves.
The streets are crooked, and the houses are generally boJIt of wood, but many of those recently eror.ted ate handsome edifice* of brick, ^mong the public buildings are a court house, almshouse, market bouse, 3 banks, a museum belonging to the EastIndia Marine society, an athenxum containing more than 5.000 volumes, an orphan asylum, and 11 houses of public worship. 6 for Congregationalists, 2 for Baptists, 1 for Episcopalians, 1 for Friends, and 1 for L'nirersalists.
The commerce of Salem is extensive. In 1816, it w*» the sixth town in the United States in amount of shipping, the number of tons being 34,451, of which nearly one half was employed in the India trade. This trade has been prosecuted with great spirit and success for many years, and has been a source of much wealth to the town. A society composed of mnstcrs aod supercargoes of vesspU wliykavc siiled round the cape of Good Hope or cape Horn, was incorporated in 1801, an I now consists of *jb*ot 160 members. A musoum belong* to the society, competed of curiosities from all parts of the world, and is visited by str-snjera without expense. The inhabitant* of Salem are celebrated for enterprise, industry and true republican economy. It Is the oldest town in Massachusetts, except I'Kmmith. having been settled in 162G. T1k» population in 1C20 was 12,731.
.Yewburyport, the third town in the state in population and commerce, is situated on the south bank of Merrimack rivet, 3 miles from it* moulh, and 24 miles north of Salem- It is one of the handsomest towns ia the United State*, the site being a beautiful declivity, the bouses neatly built, and the streets wide and intersecting each other nearly at right angles. Among the pulilic buildings are 8 banks; and 7 bouses for public worship, 3 for Congregations I istt, 8 for Presbyterians, 1 for Episcopalians and 1 for Baptists.
In 1816 Newburyport was the 10th town in the United Stated in amount of shipping. The number of tons was 84,982, employed partly in the coasting trade and fineries and partly in the trade to the West Indies, Europe and the Ea«t Indies. The town is well situated for chip building, having the advantage of receiving lumber from the interior by Merrimack river. The harbor is deep, safe and capacious, but difficult to enter. The town suffered severely by the restrictions on commerce previous to the late war, and by fire in 1811. It has not yet fully recovered from these misfortunes. Population in 1810, 7,634; in 1820, 6852.
Ciir.uctst'r is situated on the peninsula of Cape Ann, at the northern eitremity of Massachusetts bay, 16 miles N. E. of Salem. It is one of the moat considerable fibbing towns in the Commonwealth. The amount of shipping owned here in 1815 was 11,080 tons. Population in 1880, 6,384. On the S. E. side ot the town is Thatcher's island, on which are two light-houses.
Beverly lies directly north of Salem, and is connected with it by a bridge 1,500 feet in length. It has considerable trade, and the inhabitants are extensively engaged in the fisheries. Population, in 1880, 4,883.
Marblehead is on a peninsula, IA miles N E. of Boston and 4.', 9. £. of Salem. It is more extensively encaged in the bank fisheries than any other town in the United States. In 1818 there were 80 V<*mi* employed from this port in the fishery of the Grand Bank, manned by 760 men. The whole amount of shipping, in 1815, was 16,655 tons. Population in 1820, 5,630.
Lynn lies on the coast, 6 miles S. W. of Salem and 9 N. E. of Boston. It ia famous for the manufacture of ladies' shoes. No leas than a million pair were made here in 1811. They are «ent in large quantities to the southern slates and the U '< -i |u. dins. Population, in 1820,4,515. Lynn Beach is regarded as a curiosity. It connects the peninsula of Nabant with the main land, and ia a favorite place of resort for parties of pleasure from Dos tot i, Salem and Marblehead.
CliarluioKH is beautifully situated on a peninsula formed by Mystic and Charles rivers, which unite immediately below in Boston harbor. A bridge across Charles river connects the tonn with Boston, and two others across Mystic river connect it wiili Maiden, and with Chelsea. There is also a bridge across a bay of Charles river, on the west side of the town, connecting it with Cambridge. Among the public buildings are the state •prison, * the Massachusetts Insane Hospital, an almshouse, town house ; and 5 houses for public worship, 2 for Congregationalists, 1 for Baptists, 1 for Universalists and 1 for Methodists. A navy yard of the United States occupies the S. E. part of the town. It consists of about 60 acres of land, on which are erected a marine hospital, a spacious ware house, an arsenal, and house for the accomodation of the superintendant, all of brick; and an immense wooden edifices under which the largest vessels of war are built. The celebrated battle of “Breed's hill,” commonly, but incorrectly called “Bunker hill battle,” was fought in this town. June 17, 1775. The population of Charlestown in 1820 was 6,591. Plymouth is on the coast 36 miles S. S. E. of Boston. It is the oldest town in New-ongland. The first settlers landed here on the 22d of December 1620. A part of the rock on which the pilgrims landed has been removed to the centre of the town, and the anniversary of their landing is still celebrated. The harbor of Plymouth is spacious but shallow. The aunount of shipping in 1815, was 18,875 tons. Population in 1820, 4,384. Provincetown is situated at the extremity of thc peninsula of cape Cod, 60 miles S. E. of Boston by water, 116 by land. Its harbor, which is one of the best in the state, opens to the southward, and has depth of water for any ships. The houses are one story high and set on piles, that the driving sands may pass under them, otherwise they would be buried. The inhabitants derive their subsistence from the prosecution of the fisheries, and are dependent on Boston and on the towns in the vicinity for every vegetable production. Population in 1820, 1,225. .New Bedford is 52 miles south of Boston, on the estuarv of a small river which flows into Buzzard's bay. It has a safe and commodious harbor. The inhabitants are extensively engaged in the whale fishery. In 1818 more than 20 vessels were employed in the whale fishery and many more in the Cod fishery, coasting trade, and foreign trade. The whole amount of shipping, in 1818, was 23,712 tons. Population, in 1820, 3,947. Taunton is a pleasant and flourishing town on the west side of Taunton river. 36 miles south of Boston. Population, in 1820, 4,520. Worcester, the capital of Worcester county, is a pleasant and flourishing town 40 miles west of Boston. Population in 1820, 2,962. In 1819 a handsome and commodious building was erected here for the reception of the library and cabinet of the American Antiquarian society. The library consists of nearly 6,090 volumes, many of them rare and valuable works, and the cabinet is respectable. Springfield stands on the east bank of Connecticut river, 87 miles west of Boston. It has several flourishing manufacturing establishments, asid carries on an extensive inland trade. Population, in 1820, 3,914. The principal armory of the United States is in this town. The situation of the arimory is remarkably pleasant and healthy, being a perfectly level elevated plat, about half a mile east of the village. The buildings are arranged on a Urge square, and consist of one brick edifice 804 feet by 32, 2 stories high, occupied by lork lilers Mockers and finishers; • brick forping shop, 150 feet by 32 ; H brick building 60 fret by 32, 2 stories high, the second story forming a lurge and spacimrs lull devoted to religions worship; n brick building l(>0 feet by 40, and 2 stories high,n*ed as it depository of arm* ; and numerous •mailer stores and shops.—The water works are situated on Mill river, about I mile south of the armory, and comprise 5 workshops, 28 forges, 10 trip-hammers and 18 water wheels, exhibiting the greatest assemblage of mills, and other waterworks, to be found in the state. In the whole establishment an employed from 24») to 250 workmen, who complete, on an average, about 46 muskets daily, and the number may he increased to almost any extent. From I7U5 to December 1817 128,550 tnnskets were made here.
.YnrthaiiuMan is situated in the midst of a beriutiful country, no the west bank of Connecticut river, 18 miles north of Springfield. It contained in 1C20, 2,851 inhabitants. The prospect from Mount llolynkc in the immediate vicinity is one of the finest and most extensive in New-England.
The principal towns in Berkshire county are Stockbrulge and Lenox on the Hooestennuc; Pittsfirld. 12 miles north of Stockbridge, and rVilliamttiram. the seat of Williams' college, in the N. W. corner of the state.
Education ] Massachusetts is highly distinguished for her literary institutions. There is a University at Cambridge, a college at Williamstown, a collegiate institution at Amherst, and a Theological seminary at Andover; besides numerous flourishing academies.
Harvard college, now the Unxvtrtity in Cambridge, 3 miles W. N. W. of Boston, is the oldest and most wealthy literary institution in the United State*. It waa founded in 1638, in less than 20 years after the first settlement of New-England, lis officers in 1821 were a president. 20 professors, 5 tutors, a proctor and a regent. The Library is the largest in America, containing 25,000 volumes. The philosophical and chemical apparatus are complete. There is a valuable cabinet of minerals belonging to the university; an excellent anatomical museum; and a botanic garden .containing ft- acres, and furnished with an extensive- collection of trees, shrubs and plants, both native and foreign.
The college buildings consist of the University hall, which is a i elegant stone edifice containing the chapel, dining halls and lecture rooms; Harvard hall, containing the library, philosophical apparatus museum, Ate. 4 spacious brick edifices, containing rooms for students; and several other buildings, for the accommodation of the president, professors and students. An astronomical observatory is about to be erected on an expensive scale.
A law school, n medical school, and a theological seminary form part of the University.. The whole number of students in 1821 was 374; of whom 29 were theological «4udeols, ^3 law/ students 53 medical students, ind 277 undergraduates. The whole number who completed their education here from the «?stabii*hment of the institution to the year 1821 was 4,622, a greater number than at any other college in tha country.
William*'' college in Williamstown was incorporated in 1793. Its officers in 1821 were a president. 2 professors and 2 tutor*. It has a respectable library, a valuable philosophical and chemical apparatus and at present about GO students. The income of th" charity funds is sufficient to pay the term bills of 25 students, and half of this is alike applicable to all indigent young men of merit, whether designed for the Christian ministry or not The expenses of living at Williamstown are very moderate. Goad hoard may be had for a dollar a week, and the best wood is sold for one dollar fifty cents a cord.
The Collegiate institution at Amherst, near Northampton, was established in 1S2I. It has a president. 3 professors, one tutor and 59 students. The library belonging to the institution contains 900 volumes, and the society libraries have about 400 more. The charity funds are large, and the expense of living very moderate.
The Theological seminary at Andover, 20 miles north of Boston, was founded in 1808 and has been richly endowed entirely by private bounty. The whole amount of what hits beat contributed for permanent use in this seminary, including the permanent funds, library and public buildings, is more than tarn hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and this has been contributed almost entirely from six families. In 1822 the officers were 4 professors and the number of students was 132- The whole number who have completed their education here is 312. The library contains about 5,1)00 volumes The buildings are oo a lct> eminence and command an extensive prospect. They consist to an elegant brick edifice, containing the chapel, library and lecurel rooms; 2 spacious brick edifices, containing rooms for the acctotnmodation of 128 students; and houses for each of the professors and the steward. A majority of the students are supported in whole or in part by charily.
Phillips' academy, also in Andover, is the most flourishing academy in the state. It was founded in 1778 by the Hon. S»av uel Phillips, E«q. of Andover, and his brother, the Hon. John Phillips L. L. D. of Exeter. Its officers are a principal. 3 assistants, a teacher of sacred mn=ic and a writing master. The number of (Indents in 1822 was 130, all of whom were pursuing the study of the learned languages. The institution is accommodated with a large and commodious brick building, 80 feet bv 40, erected in 1818, on a range with the buildings of the Theological seminary- This academy and the Theological seminary are under the same Board of Trustees.
Population.) The population, in 1790, was 378,787 ; in I 800, 432,845; in 1810, 472,010 and m 1820, 623,284. It has on an average 72 persons to a square mile, and is the moat thickly settled Hate in the Union