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Inquiries Elementary and Historical in the Science of Law (Classic Reprint)
No preview available - 2015
according actions actual admit adopted ages appears applicable arise arrangement ascertain Bentham branches called century civil classification coercive law common law conduct consequences considered consistent constitution contract course criminal cultivated detail determination direct distinction distinguished division doctrines duties effect enforced established ethics exercise exist experience external fact feelings force former foundation gentium historical human idea improvement independent individuals inquiries internal judge judicial Juris jurisprudence jurists Jus naturae justice language lawyers least legislative limited mankind matter means ment merely mind mode moral nature necessary object observation obviously offences operation origin particular penal perhaps persons philosophers physical portion positive law practical present principles private law progress reason recognised reference regulation relations rights and obligations Roman rules seems sense separate similar society succession term things tion treatise various views
Page 27 - Est quidem vera lex, recta ratio, naturae congruens, diffusa in omnes, constans, sempiterna, quae vocet ad officium jubendo, vetando a fraude deterreat ; quae tarnen neque probos frustra jubet aut vetat, nee improbos jubendo aut vetando movet.
Page 27 - Huic legi nee obrogari fas est, neque derogari ex hac aliquid licet, neque tota abrogari potest. Nee vero aut per senatum aut per populum solvi hac lege possumus : neque est quaerendus explanator aut interpres ejus aliusr nee erit alia Lex Romae, alia Athenis, alia nunc, alia posthac...
Page 27 - Neque est quaerendus explanator aut interpres ejus alius: nee erit alia lex Romae, alia Athenis, alia nunc, alia posthac, sed et omnes gentes, et omni tempore una Lex, et sempiterna, et immortalis continebit; unusque erit communis quasi magister, et imperator omnium DEUS. Ille legis hujus inventor, disceptator, lator: cui qui non parebit, ipse se fugiet, ac naturam hominis aspernabitur: hocque ipso luet maximas poenas, etiam si caetera supplicia, quae putantur effugerit.— CICERO, Fragm.
Page 82 - Erat enim ratio profecta a rerum natura et ad recte faciendum impellens et a delicto avocans, quae non turn denique incipit lex esse, cum scripta est; sed cum orta est. Orta autem simul est cum mente divina.
Page 60 - ... the natural sentiments of justice from arriving at that accuracy and precision which, in more civilized nations, they naturally attain to. Their laws are, like their manners, gross and rude and undistinguishing. In other countries the unfortunate constitution of their courts of judicature hinders any regular system of jurisprudence from ever establishing itself among them, though the improved manners of the people may be such as would admit of the most accurate. In no country do the decisions...
Page 94 - Nam quod quisque populus ipse sibi ius constituit, id ipsius proprium est vocaturque ius civile, quasi ius proprium civitatis; quod vero naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit, id apud omnes populos peraeque custoditur vocaturque ius gentium, quasi quo iure omnes gentes utuntur.
Page 138 - To assure to individuals the possession of a certain good, is to confer a right upon them."7 Goods are assured by imposing duties or obligations, by requiring acts or forbearances of others. Obligations do not correspond to rights unless they protect or serve rather than harm or threaten those they directly concern. So Bentham held that rights "correlate...
Page 59 - Sometimes what is called the constitution of the state, that is, the interest of the government; sometimes the interest of particular orders of men who tyrannize the government, warp the positive laws of the country from what natural justice would prescribe...
Page 68 - Omnino qui rei publicae praefuturi sunt, duo Platonis praecepta teneant, unum, ut utilitatem civium sic tueantur, ut, quaecumque agunt, ad earn référant obliti commodorum suorum, alterum, ut totum corpus rei publicae curent, ne, dum partem aliquam tuentur, reliquas deserant.
Page 137 - To show their mode of generation, is to show their nature. A period may be easily imagined when men existed without laws, without obligations, without crimes, without rights. What would they then possess ? Persons, things, actions ; persons and things, the only real beings ; actions, which exist only for a fleeting moment, which perish the instant that they are born, but which still leave a numerous posterity. Among these actions, some will produce great evils, and the experience of these evils will...