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Insurrection displays itself in the north. 273 atmy here, and the danger to which the capital would have been exposed, if the insurgents had gained Arklow and followed the blow.”

Turning with horror from the dreadful scenes of murder committed in Wexford, chiefly under the direction, and entirely at the instigation of an * infuriate monster of the name of Dixon, a cap. tain of a trading vessel,”: we shall hasten to bring. the account of this calamitous period to a close. The north had hitherto remained quiet: not because disaffection did not prevail, but because the disaffected wanted an organised system of action, and were waiting to know what success had attended the southern rebels. Consequently, when they heard of the proceedings in Wexford, and of the three victories gained in succession over the royal army, a rising spirit of insubordination began to shew itself in the vicinity of Antrim. A considerable number assembled on the 7th of June, but were dispersed by the troops under General Nugent, with the loss of near two hun. dred men. Unsuccessful attempts were also made by small parties at Larne, Ballymena, and Bally. castle: but the insurgents were given to understand, that the rest of the northerns would not second their efforts, because they had received intelligence that the war in the south had assumed A completely religious complexion, and the pro. testants justly feared that if they assisted the catholics in overthrowing the government, the next overthrow would be their own, whenever the

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former should obtain a sufficient ascendency. A lucky conviction this, on the protestant mind, as an effectual co-operation between the north and south must have ended in a successful resistance to the royal authority: the mal-contents (who were mostly protestants) however relinquished all thoughts of further warfare; and breaking, throwing away, or surrendering their weapons, dispersed to their several homes. Partial insurrection also shelted itself in the county of Down, and an action Between some insurgents and the royal troops took place at Ballynahinch, in the dèmesne of Lord Moira. They amounted to about 4000, but were soon dispersed, and finally separated from the same motives as had in:

fluenced the disaffected in Antrim. Some of the · leaders were execiited. . .

. ! The abandonment of rebellion in the northerni province, while the rest of the kingdom, with a small exception, remained in a state of quiet, left the inisurgents in the county of Wexford, to contend almost alone against the royal troops.' The town of Wexford was the prime seat of rebellion in the south. It remained in the possession of the rebel force from the 30th of May to the 2 1'st of June, during which time it was the scene of many horrors. Since their repulses at Ross and Arklow, they were reduced. to defensive warfare, and could only hope to maintain soine posts until forces should arrive to their assistance from France. During this period, Vinegar Hill, with the town of Enniscorthy at its

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Signal defeat of the rebels at Vinegar Hill. 275 foot, became the scene of the most dreadful but : cheries." Horrors and incessant apprehensions of death, attended the hapless protestants, who fell into the hands of the rebels. A few were assassino ated on the spot, where they were caught, but most of them were dragged to Vinegar Hill, where, after a sham trial, and often without even the form of such a trial, they were shot or transfixed with pikes: many lashed, or otherwise barbarously treated before their final execution.

This state of tumult, bloodshed and insubordination could not long continue. It was necesBary it should be brought to a conclusion either by the vigour of governinent, or the ascendancy of the insurgents.' 'Accordingly on the Q1st of June, at seven in the morning, a royal force of at least 13,000 effective men, with a formidable train of artillery, was to commence an attack from all quarters at once on the great station of Vinegar Hill, where probably were posted 20,000 of the rebels: but these were almost wholly destitute of ammunition. The attack began with the firing of cannon and mortars. All the divisions were at their respective posts, except that of General Needhain, who either from neglect or accident, did not arrive at his appointed position till nine, when the business was over. The rebels, after sustaining the fire of the artillery and small arms for an hour and a half, fled through the passage which lay open from the non-arrival of General Needham. The commonly entertained opinion is, that this

opening had been designedly left by the general for the enemy's retreat, in order to avoid the dreadful slaughter that might have ensued had the rebels found themselves hemmed in on all sides. If so, policy, and humanity, dictated the arrangement, but if it arose from negligence, much, censure would attach to General Needham *. The fugitive rebels directed their course towards. Wexford. They left behind them a quantity of rich plunder, with thirteen pieces of ordinance. The loss on the side of the king's forces was inconsiderable.

The royal troops obtained possession of Wex, ford on the same day as Enniscorthy. General Moore, at the head of about 1200 men had, on the evening of the 20th been intercepted by an army of five or six thousand led from Three Rocks by Philip Roche, at Goff's bridge near the church of Horetown. A smart contest ensued, in which the rebels were defeated. Joined by two regis ments under Lord Dalhousie, the army took post on the field of battle, and on the morning of the 21st was proceeding to Taghmon, when two gentlemen arrived with proposals from the inhabitants of Wexford, to surrender, the town on condition that their lives, and properties should be guarrenteed by his majesty's generals. Moore forwarded these proposals to the commander in chief, (General Lake) who returned for answer, that no

It seems to have been General Lake's design to oblige the whole multitude to surrender, and thus, put an end to the rebellion; a wise measure if it had been practicable... "

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Treacherous conduct towards the insurgents. 277 terms could be granted to rebels in arms ; but that the deluded multitude might have peace and protection, when their arms and leaders should have been delivered into his hands. : Lord Kingsborough, Colonel of the North Cork Militia, who was a prisoner in the town, promised them full security if they complied with those conditions. : The insurgents were with difficulty prevailed on by their chiefs to quit the town. They divided themselves into two bodies; one, under the cominand of the Rev. Philip Roche, marched into the barony of Forth, and encamped that night at Sledagh; the other, under the conduct of Messrsa Fitzgerald, Perry, and Edward Roche, proceeded over the bridge to Peppard's Castle, where they took their station for that night. When General Lake," arrived at Wexford on the 22d, he found General Moore in possession': of it. Many persons who remained, upon the faith of Lord Kingsborough's assurances of safety, were immediately apprehended and suffered death. Philip Roché, likewise, coming alone to Wexford to settle with his majesty's generals the manner in which his troops were to surrender and disperse, was seized, maltreated in a manner quite shocking to humanity *, and conmitted to prison,

* He was instantly dragged from his horse, and in the most ignominious manner taken up to the camp on the Windmill Hill, pulled by the hair, kicked, buffetted, and at length hauled, down to the gaol in such a condition as scarcely to be recognized. . .

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