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studied by men of all grades and aims with great advantagean Its chief divisions are four:-1st. On the discovery and arrangement of arguments. 2nd. On the management of the passions. 3rd. On style. 4th. On elocution. On all these topics many useful obser vations are made, and many admirable males are laid down for guidance in practice ; his figures of speech uniformly illustrate as well as adorn and dignify his subject; but there are no blazing brilliancy, no meteoric effulgence, no agonies and spasms of eloquence, no hurried crowds of figures, tropes, metaphors, and similes, no rush of lightnings, no reverberations of thunder. An earnest calmness, always keeping passion in check by reason, and controlling impetuosity by the supremacy of a fixed purpose, per vades the whole-you feel the movement of his pulse, but not the beating of his heart. This measured evenness of force is, we think, one of the mistakes of the book; there does seem to us a want of conformity to Nature in it-fervour, energy, pathos, impressiveness, passion-or the sum of all eloquence---seem to us to require an onrush and recession like the inflow of the tide-advance, recoil, and then a return, in a broader, deeper, stronger, a more resistless wave. The author interprets passion as coolly as an anatomist; he does not illustrate it, like a living Demosthenes, Chatham, Peel, Brougham, or Disraeli. The delineation is correct, but “life is wanting.” The charm of the Logic is the defect of the Rhetoric the cold, clear, cogent, flawless reasoning it contains.
When, in February, 1829, his old class-list mate--Sir Robert Peel-appealed to the learned constituency of Oxford upon the Catholic Emancipation question, and was defeated by Sir Robert Harry Inglis, Whately voted for the statesman who proposed to concede the civil claims of the members of the Romish Church, and so gave public testimony to his liberal tendencies. At the close of the same year, Dr. Whately succeeded bis “ friend and former pupil, Mr. [Nassau William] Senior, of Magdalen College”—who, like him. self, had been a contributor to the “Encyclopædia Metropolitana." -as professor of political economy, a chair for the teaching of that subject having been established in 1825 by Henry Drummond, Esq., of Albury Park, Surrey, endowed with £100 per annum, on certain conditions. This was in continuation, we believe, of a course of lectures instituted by Mr. Pryme, of Trinity. The chair was made tenable for five years, and Mr. Senior was the first professor. The nine lectures delivered by Dr. Whately in Easter Term, 1831, were immediately published, and attracted great attention. The “first object” of these lectures was, as stated in the preface, " to combat the prevailing prejudices against the study, and especially those which represent it as unfavourable to religion;" and "to remove the impression existing in the minds of many, both of the friends and the adversaries of Christianity, as to the hostility between that and political economy.”
ika. These lectures have a high intrinsic value, and they exerted an exceedingly beneficial influence on the progress of public opinion at the time of their delivery, cspecially in conciliating the religious world to favourable views of that science whose true object is human well-being (weal-th). They have been subsequently republished with additions, and they still retain the favour of those who aim at and advocate the religionizing of secular life and its affairs.
Whately was chosen three times select preacher of his University. The first series of discourses treated of " Some of the Peculiarities of the Christian Religion," and are levelled at the “ Heresy of Indif. ference." They relate chiefly to the following points : -The dif. ference between the Christian and the Heathen belief in the future state of the soul; the Divine design in the Incarnation ; Love of and love to Jesus ; the practicalism of Christianity; Child-like-ness as a Christian characteristic; and the absence of Ecciesiasticism in Scripture. The second series are disquisitions' “On Some of the Difficulties in the Writings of the Apostle Paul, &c. ;" they inculcate generally the duty of studying the Scriptures, and criticize some of the opinions (usually] beliered to be taught by the scholastic apostle, e. g., election, predestination, original sin, imputed righteousness, justification by faith, and cognate doctrines. These questions are handled with caution, moderation, and sometimes, perhaps, with overstretched ingenuity.
The subject of the third series seems to have been suggested to him by a desire to show, that though an advocate for the freedom of the Catholies from civil disabilities, he had no favour to bestow on that bastard Romanism which Pusey, Newman, Keble, &c., were striving to make Oxonian. The errors of Romanism, traced to their origin in human nature, constitute, perhaps, the ablest and most original of the author's contributions to theological literature. The central idea is that Popery is “what may be called in a certain sense the religion of nature, viz., such a kind of religion as the natural man' is disposed to frame for himself; at first overlooked, then tolerated, then sanctioned, and finally embodied in that system of which it is rather to be regarded as “the cause than the effect,” having its main origin indicated in the proverb, “ Populus vult decipi, et decipiatur ” The people wish to be deceived, and they are. These sermons constitute a refutation, in advance, of the doctrines of the Tractarian party by one who knew the leaven with which Oxford was being leavened. This series of sermons wa, published in 1830.
The “Tracts for the Times” were issued 1833–41. It is to be retmarked that the above notices of these works are the expression of the opinions of a person of no special theological attainments, and are given from the memory of their perusal years ago-reading not intended then as the foundation of criticism, and not since revised for that purpose.' af In 1830, Mr. Fellowes, of Ludgate Hill, published the Rev. Dr. Whately's “Thoughts on the Sabbath.” At this time, all pamphlets were liable to stamp duty, except books of piety and devotion. Proceedings were taken against the publisher for the penalties attached to non-payment of pamphlet duty, and he was fined twenty
pounds, subsequently mitigated to twenty shillings; and when the publisher remonstrated that the book was one of piety and devotion, he was answered that it was “rather the contrary, because Mr. Whately controverts the Mosaic law, and inculcates that we may do just the same on Sabbaths as on other days.” This is partly the fact; for the author maintains that the Jewish Sabbath and the Lord's day are different institutions; the latter binding on Christians chiefly by apostolic example and ancient usage.
In 1831, on the demise of Archbishop Magee (born 1765), author of a well-known work on “The Scriptural Doctrine of the Atonement," the principal of St. Alban's Hall was promoted to the archiepiscopal see of Dublin, and was consecrated Archbishop of Dublin, Primate of Ireland, Bishop of Glendalagh; and since that time the bishopric of Kildare has been conferred upon him. His official income is £7,786. Bishop Copleston says that Dr. Whately “accepted the arduous station proposed to him purely, I believe, from public spirit and a sense of duty. Wealth and honour and title and power have no charm for him. He has great energy and intrepidity; a hardihood which sustains him against obloquy when he knows he is discharging a duty, and he is generous and disinterested almost to a fault. His enlarged views, his sincerity, and his freedom from prejudice, are more than a compensation for his want of conciliating manner.” This character it is generally understood the prelate-logician has never in word or act belied, and he is reported to be sedulous, indefatigable, and honest in the performance of his highly responsible, if honourable position.
For a time the duties of his diocese occupied all his energies and interests; but in 1332 he published the evidence he gave before the Irish Tithes Commission in January of that year, on his first visit to England since his installation. It was given with clearness, precision, and impartiality. In the same year, his “ Thoughts on Secondary Punishments appeared; and these were followed, in 1834, by “Remarks on Transportation,” &c. The National Education in Ireland question rose into importance in 1831, and the Archbishop entered warmly and actively into the scheme of Lord Stanley (now the Earl of Derby) for accomplishing a regular State organization for education, and even wrote for the Irish National School books several series of lessons, e.g., “Easy Lessons on Money Matters,” &c. Of this scheme, he was a constant and consistent patron and promoter till 1853, in which year, we think, he withdrew from the commission, in conjunction with Chief Justice Black. burn and Baron Greene, because he thought that undue concessions had been made to the Catholics in close sequence to their so-called invasion of England. This step led to much discussion at the time. It is certainly à cause of regret that so earnest a friend of education should have felt himself compelled to retire from efforts so useful and so necessary.
In 1835, he published “Sermons on Various Subjects;" in 1836, his “ Charges and Tracts ;" in 1839, “ Essays on Some of the
Dangers to Christian Faith, which arise from the Teaching or the Conduct of its Professors," and edited his uncle's “Remarks on the Characters of Shakespeare." His several works, besides, were called in the intervals into new editions, and he in many cases laboriously revised them. He was one of the early members and supporters of the Society for the promotion of Christian Knowledge, and wrote a good deal for their useful though humble publications. Among other noteworthy contributions to the literature they spread through the country, we may mention “Easy Lessons on Reason. ing," « On Christian Evidences,” “On the History of Religious Worship,” &c.; he also revised and purified for the same Society the “Tales of the Genii.” In fact, scarcely any author has chosen and employed so many themes, and so many agencies for the dissemination of his views on them-halfpenny tract, sixpenny magazine, shilling pamphlet, boys' school book, high-priced quarterly, stately volume, gigantic cyclopædia, come alike to him—his intel. lectual energy and adaptativeness enable him to be interested, and to interest in all-a versatility surpassing King, Butler, Watson, and Paley, distinguishes him from all his brethren of the Bench, and has enabled him to enrich literature in so many depart. ments as to almost furnish by his own works, all that Cobbett boasted of doing with his—a whole library. His archiepiscopal “Charges” have been reprinted in a volume, and contain much valuable matter. As the most important and noteworthy of these, we think we may name the following, viz. :-“Thoughts on Church Government" (1844), "Reflections on a Grant to a Roman Catholic Seminary” (1845), “ Divisions Within the Church ” (1845), "The Right Use of National Afflictions" (1848). Many of his diocesan sermons have also been issued in pamphlet, as well as in more durable form. On the publication of F. W. Newman's “History of the Hebrew Monarchy" (1847), Whately renewed his former (1819) satiric vein, and under the guise of the Rev. Aris. tarchus Newlight, Ph.D., Giessen, &c., &c., issued “Historic Certainties Respecting the Early History of America”-a work whose success was injured more by the ability of the “Doubts" than by any defect in the merit of the “ Certainties.” In 1849, his “Lectures on St. Paul's Epistles" appeared. About this time it became matter of general belief that he was engaged on a revision of the translation of the New Testament; but subsequent publications have not justified the rumour. A collection of his literary ad. dresses, few of which, however, are animated by that popular energy which rouses, stimulates, and agitates the soul, have been published, as have also been recently a select few of his contributions to review literature. His most recent additions to the library have taken the form of annotations—the jottings of a full mind. In 1856, he gave us Bacon's “Essays," in the proportion of about 100 pages of My Lord of Verulam to 300 of My Lord of Dublin ; and in 1859, Paley's “Moral Philosophy,” similarly commented on, appeared. The annotations on these books are ingenious, acute, pregnant, striking--though rather too many appeared to us on a hasty perusal to be centos from his former writings, or repetitions of his earlier thoughts. Nor must we forget his contribution to another great work, the “Encyclopædia Britannica,” a “Dissertation on the Rise, Progress, and Corruptions of Christianity." This essay is able, calm, judicial, and not extraordinarily spiritual; and we do not think it compares well with the sketch, covering a good deal of the same ground, contributed by Dr. Chalmers forty years before to Dr. (now Sir). David Brewster's “Edinburgh Ency. clopædia."
But not his own works only, able as all these are, and numerous as they have been-only a portion of which has been catalogued in these pages-give us anything like an estimate of what we owe to Archbishop Whately. Could we sum up the influences of his student-life, of his tutorial exertions, his pastoral labours, his pro fessorial preleetions, bis provostship duties, his prelatic functions, his legislative endeavours, and his individual, social, and eocle siastical example, we might faintly conceive the worth of the man; but to this we should require to add the numerous impulses he has exerted on and in Church politics, literature, individual minds, &c.; and even then the total would only be an inadequate approximation of the results of the singularly felicitous combination of mind, fortune, circumstances, &c., which constitute the life of Archbishop Wbately.
Yet this one remark we may justly make, we think ; that if the course and passage of time for more than three-quarters of a century have found the famous logical student of Oxford always ready minded, in the van of thought, capable of touching, with an Ithuriel's spear,* each fallacy of the times - scepticism, tractarianism, Romanism, indifferentism, &c., powerful to resuscitate old studies, and to incite to new, and able in all points to say something vitally applicable, while men of more copious genius have flashed, and dazzled, and amazed, then left us all but uninformed and unimproved, it must have been in part owing to the culture which his mind underwent in early life in the arts of arranging, expressing, and employing argumentative thought; that Whately has won his power, influence, position, usefulness, fame, and character in great measure through his taking the right way of investigating truth, that is, through being a Logician.
His singular power of comprehending principles, yet scheming out minute details ; his ability to express, in lucid language, long chains of reasoning, and to epigramize their results, are qualities of his mind on which we could enlarge ; but we chiefly admire and respect him for his honest and fearless attachment to truth, and for the endeavours he has made to infiltrate into the Church his belief that truth is power.
# « Paradise Lost," book iv., sect. 11.