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necessary elements of education shall become a sine qua non in every school, or the grant is lost. It is of no avail to plead the high-toned morality and intellectual culture of teachers and managers as a safeguard against the neglect of these elements; the past proves that these have been neglected. We therefore cannot expect improvement for the future, unless by pecuniary interest, dependent upon a certain standard being attained throughout the school. The old standard was term of attendance, and general results; now it is made attendance and particular results. Before, it was a general examination, for the most part, of the best scholars in the school; now it is a particular examination of every scholar. The standard is certainly low, both as to attainments and the term of attendance; but in this, we think, the Minute errs on the right side, because it is an improvement upon the utter neglect of the past, and the standard can be raised in the future, as the circumstances of the case may demand ; and no cavil can by possi. bility be raised upon the severity of its test. If twenty per cent. of scholars received an education superior to the station in life which the scholars in elementary schools for the independent poor occupy, it is no justification of the comparative negligence of the other eighty per cent., who would be turned out upon society with all the pride of education, without any of its moralizing or intel. lectual benefits ; and any system which tends to reverse this state of things, must necessarily be a great benefit to the cause of general education, because an almost universal possession of the elements of education will not only tend to restrain brutish sensualism, gross vices, and pauperism, but will give an improved tone to the moral character of the whole community. The discipline necessary to the communication of a knowledge of these elements, will beget habits of self-respect, and the desire to appear well in the estimation of others. This effect is now realized in the very small minority, but is lost as regards the great majority; therefore the New Code, having for its special object the realization of this change, minimizes negligence, and maximizes excellence of attainments of the most useful character; besides, from the large increase of scholars obtaining proficiency in reading, writing, and cyphering, it is reasonable to expect a greater number of earnest self-educators, desirous to attain still higher results, who will readily avail themselves of all means within their reach to facilitate their higher studies. We are so sanguine of this result, that we fully anticipate the elementary schools will produce a much larger ratio of clever, proficient scholars, in addition to the general acquaintance of the now neglected ones in the necessary elements. It is a well-recog. nized principle in social statics-elevate the mass in any particular respect, and the necessary result is a large increase in the class of excellence. Thus, in commerce, improve the bulk of any class of producers, and the result will be a larger number of superior capabilities, far outstripping any of their predecessors. · As a means to this end, the Revised Code apportions its grants to managers according to the proficiency of the pupils under their charge; the examination of the pupils extends to all useful subjects in general education, and an examination in religious knowledge according to arrangements with the managers of schools of different religious denominations, but it is absolutely necessary that a certain standard of proficienoy should be attained in reading, writing, and arithmetic, in addition to a given number of attendances at school, to qualify for grants in aid of the schoal funds. This standard is thus given in the Revised Code, clause 40:-“The managers of schools may claim per scholar ld. for every attendance after the first 100, at the morning or afternoon meetings, and after the first 12 at the evening meetings of their school within the year, defined by article 17.* Attendances under half-time acts may be multiplied by two to make up the preliminary number. One-third part of the sum thus claimable is forfeited if the scholar fails to satisfy the inspector in reading; one-third, if in writing; and one-third, if in arithmetic, respectively.”
Training colleges for pupil teachers, queen's scholarships, are provided to receive, and encourage pupils to become apprentices.
* The Commissioners estimate the cost of education at 30s. per annum (p. 345), and recommend that the average grant obtainable should be about 10s. per child, never exceeding 15s. per child.
Fifteen shillings = 180 peuce, may be earned according to the proposed scale, by an attendance (twice per diem) of 140 days = the attendance proposed by the Commissioners as reasonable to aim at (p. 330).
According to the estimate of the Commissioners, the education of every 100 children = £150; and according to a rough application of the Table at p. 172 of their Report to the proposed scale, the grant obtainable for the attendance of 100 children would be £64 3s. 4d., before the reductions consequent upon examination and inspection. The average, therefore, including evening scholars, would probably not exceed 10s. per head. The calculation is as follows:
Amount of grant for 100 children, at one penny per attendance after the first 100 attendances.
Out of every 100 children, according to the average of England and Wales (Report, p. 172), taking round numbers, and counting 1 day = 2 attendances,
20 make less than 100 attendances =- - - - £00 0
• 4 3 4
which 150 at id. = 20 X 12s. 6d. - -
- 20 16 8
which 320 at 1d. = 20 X 26s. 8d. - - - - 26 13 4
£64 3 4 By this estimate it will be perceived that the schoolmaster is well remunerated for bis labour, since the Government grant is made contingent upon the managers supplying at least twice this amount 'by voluntary subscriptions, or other local sources.
The Revised Code, clause 47 (6), ensures the employment of apprentices, by making aid to the school contingent on their employ. ment when the scholars exceed a certain number; the course of study in the training colleges, and the practical experience received during apprenticeship, is especially designed to qualify them for teaching the majority of the scholars the first elements of knowledge well and thoroughly, existing defects are corrected, and improvements adopted, to secure this chief object of the change from Old to New Code.
Besides the tendency of the Revised code to necessitate more general and practical attention to the necessary elements of education suitable to the circumstances of the independent poor, it also transfers the management more completely to the local managers of schools, by making the grants to them for payment to masters ; by requiring apprentices to be bound to the managers, not to the masters; relieving the school of all central influence, only so far as is necessary to perfect education, and protect the Committee of Council from imposition in the distribution of the grants. The unconstitutional character of the Committee of Council is hereby lessened; local self-government is encouraged; private benevolence is stimulated, and the deserving poor scholar is placed in a position to attain the means of raising himself in social position, in intellect, and in morals; while the careless and indifferent are compelled, to some extent, to receive sufficient knowledge to make them more orderly citizens, better servants, more faithful husbands and wives, and, as fathers and mothers, better examples for their children to follow; while, as coadjutors with the educators of a future generation, they will be truly valuable to the whole community.
We conclude, from these considerations, that the Revised Code is calculated to benefit the cause of general education.
L'OUVRIER. NEGATIVE ARTICLE.-I. A VERY cursory comparison of the revised with the old Code, will show that the most marked and important changes and modifications are the following:-1. The reduction of the grants to training colleges. 2. The withdrawal of the augmentations of salary, hitherto made to school teachers and to the lecturers in the colleges. 3. The abandonment of all relation between the pupil teachers and the Committee of Council. 4. The payment of a capitation grant based on the children's attainments in reading, writing, and arithmetic, in lieu of all other school grants.
It is asserted that these organic alterations will conduce to the more rapid progress of sound elementary instruction; but we think it will be easy to demonstrate that the existing system has worked with remarkable success, and that the contemplated changes will exercise a retrogressive and deteriorating influence.
Many persons, relying on ex parte statements, and on the report of the Royal Commissioners, maintain that the present plan bas
failed, thus ignoring altogether the fact that elementary education has made most rapid strides during the last sixteen years. They also forget that the system has hardly been in operation long enough to bear matured fruits. Among the benefits that have already been realized, are the establishment of more than thirty training colleges; the development of the pupil teacher system ; the elevation of the position of the schoolmaster-a condition necessary to the healthy progress of education ; and the superior character of the instruction now imparted in primary schools.
The supporters of the Revised Code refer us to the Royal Commis. sioners' report, in which (while justice is done to the improved moral tone of schools under Government inspection) the following conclusion is deliberately recorded :-" The great majority of the children do not learn, or learn imperfectly, the most necessary part of what they come to learn, -reading, writing, and arithmetic."
If this allegation were true, the public might reasonably demand that proper means should be taken to remove such a serious blemish from the system, but those best acquainted with our National, British, and Wesleyan schools, know that it cannot be substantiated by fair and impartial testimony. The conclusions of the Commissioners are partly based on the reports of the Assistant Commissioners, and partly on a few unfavourable reports of her Majesty's Inspectors, carefully culled from the last four or five volumes of the “Minutes." Now, the former gentlemen had no peculiar adaptation for their work, and did not regard it as a part of their duty to examine the scholars in the schools they visited : in most cases they satisfied themselves with a slight inspection, and generally speaking, they took no special pains to ascertain whether the three R's were neglected. So much for the value of any opinion based on their investigations. The reports of her Majesty's Inspectors, on the other hand, if taken aggregately, prove that the schools are gradually improving in the lower as well as in the higher subjects. Dr. Morell, one of the oldest and most experienced of the Inspectors, in his report for 1860-1 says, “Bad schools, with imperfect apparatus and miserable discipline, have wholly disappeared from the schedules. The regular rise which has been already experienced in the standard of intelligence' during the last ten years, en. courages the hope that the tendency will still be to go higher and higher for the future.” Mr. Kennedy, in his report for the same year, says, “I think I see a decided tendency ever going on to stick to what may be called necessary subjects. By necessary subjects, I mean reading, writing, spelling, religious knowledge, and arithmetic; and in girls' schools, needlework."
In the “ Minutes" for 1860-1, we find the following statistics relative to the state of the instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic, in the schools under inspection : Reading.--Excellent, good, or fair, in 6,679 schools.
Imperfect. or het
Imperfect, or hid
Writing.-Excellent, good, or fair, in 6,782 schools.
• 14 ,
• 1,115 Imperfect, or bad . : 1095 Having regard to the fact that some of these schools have only recently come under inspection, and that, in many cases, they are in districts where the population is poor and migratory, and the school attendance irregular and fluctuating, we cannot but consider these results as very satisfactory, particularly when we find, on examination, that the schools where the instruction has been imperfect, are rapidly improving. .
If, then, the present system has achieved such success, and has satisfied the views of persons of different religious denominations, it may well be asked, “Why should an attempt be made to force an organic change on the country, when very slight modifications would have corrected any defects that now exist " The reply, if honestly and candidly given, would be in effect—"The Government grant is too rapidly increasing, and we think it desirable to reduce the estimates, or, at all events, to check any material increase." Surely a very unstatesmanlike answer, seeing that the promotion of sound elementary instruction is eminently calculated to reduce the area of misery, pauperism, vice, and crime, and therefore to arrest and diminish the expenditure devoted to workhouses and prisons.
But let us attempt to estimate the benefit or injury which the Revised Code will produce in one or two directions. The subject is too vast to be exhausted in a few lines, yet we have no doubt that we can prove that great evils would occur without resorting to any elaborate arguments.
1. All thoughtful advocates of popular education acknowledge that the training-college system is one of the most valuable agencies for raising the standard of instruction, inasmuch as these institutions secure at once that the student shall acquire a fair amount of knowledge, and also skill in the art of imparting information.. Since the development of the Government plan, the colleges have been able to carry on their operations with more effect by means of the grants made to Queen's scholars, to successful students at the end of each year, and to the lecturers-officers whose ability as educators has been ascertained by the most rigid tests. The Revised Code allows payment for only four-fifths of the students who can be accommodated in each college, and repudiates the L grant to lecturers, so that the revenue of all these institutions will
be considerably reduced, and some of them, it is fully believed, will have to close their doors. The diminution of income will compel the college committees to reduce the salaries of their officers, and hence will result an inferior class of tutors, and a feebler and less judicious course of training. Teachers will leave