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perfect; our internal resources are great; and if necessary, foreign assistance is undoubtedly attainable. We fight not for glory or conquest ; we exhibit to mankind the remarkable spectacle of a people attacked by unprovoked enemies. They boast of their privileges and civilization, and yet proffer no milder conditions than servitude or ideath. In our native land, in defence of the freedom that is our birthright, for the protection of our property, acquired by the honest industry of our forefathers, and our own, against violence actually offered, we have taken up arms; we shall lay them down when hostilities shall cease on the part of our aggressors, and all danger of their being renewed shall be removed....and not before."

These are some of the most striking passages in the declaration of congress on taking up arms against Great Britain. Without enquiring whether the principles on which it is founded are right or wrong, the determined -spirit which it shows, ought to have convinced the ministry that the conquest of America was an event not reasonably to be expected. In every other respect an equal spirit was shown; and the rulers of the British nation had the mortification to see those whom they styled rebels and traitors, succeed in negociations in which they themselves were utterly foiled. In the passing the Quebec bill the ministry had flattered themselves that the Canadians would be so much attached to them on account of restoi ing the French laws, that they would readily join in any attempt against the colonists, who had reprobated that bill in such strong terms; but in this, as in every thing else, they found themselves much mistaken.

The Canadians having been subject to the British gavernment for a period of fifteen years, and being thus made sensible of the superior advantages of the laws of that country, received the bill with evident marks of disapprobation ; so far that they reprobated it as tyrannical and oppressive.

A scheme had been formed for general Carleton, go-vernor of the province, to raise an army of Canadians wherewith to act against the Americans; and so sanguine were the hopes of administration, in this respect, that they had sent twenty thousand stands of arms and a great

quantity of military stores to Quebec, for that purpose. But the people, though they did not join the Americans, yet were found immoveable in their purpose to remain neuter. Application was made to the bishop; but he declined to use his influence, as contrary to the rules of the popish clergy; so that the utmost efforts of government in this province were found abortive.

The British administration next tried to engage the Indians in their cause. But though agents were dispersed among them with large presents to the chiefs, they universally replied, that they did not understand the nature of the quarrel, nor could they distinguish whether those who dwelt in America, or those on the other side of the ocean, were in fault; but they were surprized to see Englishmen ask their assistance against one another, and advised them to be reconciled, and not to think of shedding the blood of their brethren.

To the representations of congress they paid more attention. These informed them that the English on the other side of the ocean, had taken up arms to enslave, not only their countrymen in America, but the Indians also'; and if they overcame the colonists, themselves would soon be reduced to slavery also. The savages, upon maturely weighing the subject, concluded to remain neuter; and thus the colonists were freed from a most dangerous enemy.

On this occasion congress held a solemn conference with the different tribes of Indians. A speech was proposed, which exhibits a specimen of the manner in which Europeans always address the savage inhabitants of Ame. rica.

Brothers, Sachems, and Warriors !

“ We, the delegates from the twelve united pro"vinces, now sitting in general congress at Philadelphia, “send our talk to you our brothers.

« Brothers and Friends now attend !

" When our fathers crossed the great water, and came over to this land, the king of England gave them "a talk, promising them that they and their children should

“ be his children ; and if they would leave their native

country, and make settlements, and live here, and buy " and sell, and trade with their brethren beyond the great

water, they should still keep hold of the same covenant 6 chain, and enjoy peace; and it was covenanted, that “the fields, houses, goods, and possessions, which our “ fathers should acquire, should remain to them as their “own, and be their children's for ever, and at their sole “ disposal. “ Brothers and Friends open an ear !

We will now tell you of the quarrel betwixt the "counsellors of king George and the inhabitants of the * colonies of America.

“Many of his counsellors have persuaded him to break o the covenant chain, and not to send us any more good "talks. They have prevailed upon him to enter into a “covenant against us, and have torn asunder, and cast “behind their backs, the good old covenant which their " ancestors and ours entered into, and took strong hold “of. They now tell us they will put their hands into our pocket without asking, as though it were their own; and at their will and pleasure, they will take from us

our charter, or written civil constitution, which we love 6 as our lives ; also our plantations, our houses, and our "goods, whenever they please, without asking our leave.

They . tell us also, that our vessels. may go to that or “this island in the sea, but to this or that particular island, “ we shall not trade any more ; and in case of our non

compliance with these new orders, they shut up our « harbours.

“ Brothers, we live on the sáme ground with you ; the “ same island is our common birth-place. We desire to “set down under the same tree of peace with you : let bus water its roots, and cherish the growih, till the large “leaves and flourishing branches shall extend to the setting 6 sun, and reach the skies. If any thing disagreeable « should ever fall out between us, the twelve United Colo{"nies, and you, the Six Nations, to wound our peace, let

us immediately seek measures for healing the breach. “ From the present situation of our affairs, we judge it ex

“pedient to kindle up a small fire at Albany, where we " may hear each other's voice, and disclose our minds fully sto one another."

The other remarkable transactions of this Congress, were the ultimate refusal of the conciliatory proposal made by lord North, of which such sanguine expectations had been formed by the English ministry ; and the appointment of a generalissimo to command their armies which were now very numerous. The person chosen for this purpose was, George Washington, a man universally beloved; he was raised to the high station of Commander in Chief, by the unanimous voice of Congress, in 1775 : and his subsequent conduct shewed him every way worthy of it. Horatio Gates, and Charles Lee, two English officers of considerable reputation, were also chosen ; the former adjutant.general, the latter major-general. Artemas Ward, Philip Schuyler, and Israel Putnam, were likewise nominated major-generals. Seth Pomeroy, Richard Montgomery, David Wooster, William Heath, John Thomas, John Sullivan, and Nathaniel Green, were chosen bigadier-generals at the same time.

About this period Georgia sent deputies to congress expressing their desire to join the confederacy. The reasons they gave for their renouncing their allegiance to Britain was, that the conduct of parliament towards the other colonies had been oppressive; and though the obnoxious acts had not been extended to them, they could view this only as an omission because of the seeming little consequence of their colony ; and therefore looked upon it rather as a slight than a favour. At the same time, they framed a petition to the king, similar to that sent by the other colonies, and which met a similar reception.

The success which had bitherto attended the Americans, now emboldened them to act offensively against Great Britain. The conquest of Canada appeared to be practicable, and which would be attended with many advantages; and as Crown Point and Ticonderoga were already in their hands, the invasion that way might be easily effected, and supposed that Quebec might be reduced during the winter, before the fleets and armies, which they were well assured would sail thither from Britain, should arrive.

Congress therefore ordered three thousand men under the comniand of generals Montgomery and Schuyler, to proceed to Lake Champlain, from whence they were to be conveyed in flat-bottomed boats to the mouth of the river Sorel, a branch of the river St. Lawrence, and on which is situated a fort of the same name with the river. On the other hand they were opposed by general Carleton, governor of Canada, a man of great activity and experience in war; who with a small number of troops, had been able to keep in awe the disaffected people in Canada, notwithstanding all the representations of the colonists. He had now augmented his army with a number of Indians, and promised, even in his present situation, to make a formidable resistance.

When General Montgomery arrived at Crown point, he received information that several armed vessels were stationed at St. Johns, a strong fort on the Sorel, with a view to prevent his crossing the lake; on which he took possession of an island which commands the mouth of the Sorel, and by which he could prevent them from entering the lake. In conjunction with General Schuyler, he next proceeded to St. Johns; but finding that place tob strong, it was agreed in a council of war, to retire to Isle aux Noix, where General Schuyler being taken ill, Montgomery was left to command alone. His first step was to gain over the Indians, whom General Carleton had employed, and this he in part accomplished; after which, on receiving the full number of troops appointed for the expedition, he determined to lay seige to St. Johns; in this he was the more encouraged by the reduction of Chamblee, a small fort in the neighbourhood, where he found a large supply of powder. An attempt was made by General Carleton to relieve the place; for which purpose, he collected about one thousand Canadians, while colonel Maclean proposed to raise a regiment of the Highlanders, who had emigrated from their own country to America.

But while General Carleton was on his march with these new levies, he was attacked by the provincials, and defeated; which being made known to Macdonald's party, they abandoned him without striking a blow, and he was obliged to retreat to Quebec. The defeat of General

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