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equal measures by rhythmical pulsation—in other words, by a periodical return of similar accents.*

In graphic music, these measures are rendered conspicuous to the eye by vertical bars, as in the following line of poetry:

| Hail to the chief who in | triumph ad- / vances. I In speech there is also a return of similar accents, but they do not always occur at regular intervals of time. Hence the rhythm of speech, like its melody, is more or less irregular. The time of a note or syllable, is called quantity.

The time of a rest is also called quantity; because rests, as well as notes, are a constituent of rhythm. Hence the characters used for the expression of quantity, are either of sound or silence. The former are called notes; the latter, rests. These characters, and their relative lengths, are as follows: NOTES.

RESTS. Semibreve,

Semibreve Rest, Minim, 2 Minim Rest, .....

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Hence, a semibreve is equal to two minims; equal to four crotchets; equal to eight quavers, etc.

A dot following a note, or rest, increases its length in one-half—in other words, increases its length in the ratio of 2 to 3. Thus, a dotted semibreve (e.) is equal to a semibreve and a minim (F), or to three minims (PRP);

* It is rhythmical pulsation which enables a band of musicians to perform in concert. It is this also which enables a company of soldiers to march synchronously, and which governs the movements of the feet in dancing.

a dotted minim :), to a minim and a crotchet (), or to three crotchets"(*);

and so on. There are two general 'modes of time—common and triple. In common time each measure is divisible by 2; in triple time each measure is divisible by 3.

There are several varieties of each of these modes of time. When a piece is in common time, and each measure contains two quavers, or their equivalent, the figures are prefixed to the words, or the music; when each measure contains two crotchets, the figures i are prefixed; and when each measure contains four crotchets, a capital C, or the figures are prefixed. When a piece is in triple time, end each measure contains three quavers, the figures g are prefixed to the words, or the music; when each measure contains three crotchets, the figures i are prefixed; and when each measure contains six quavers, the figures are prefixed to the words, or the music. The upper figure, in each of these cases, shows how many notes of a certain description there are in each measure; and the lower figure, how many of these notes are equal in value to a semibreve.

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Common Time; two Crotchets in a Measure. ਨੂੰ Mld didi

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Triple Time; three Quavers in a Measure.

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MOVEMENT

Movement is the velocity with which a sentence is read or sung, or a strain of instrumental music is played.

The rate of movement should be such as the sentiment demands. Solemn discourse requires a slow movement; simple narrative, a medium rate of utterance; animated description, as well as all language expressive of any sudden passion, as joy, anger, etc., a movement more or less rapid, according to the intensity of emotion. In the science of music, various terms have been employed to denote the rate of movement, the principal of which are the following:

ADAGIO, very slow; the slowest time.
Largo, slow time.
Larghetto, slow, but not so slow as largo.
ANDANTE,

medium time.
Andantino, .. a little quicker than andante.
Allegretto, rather quick, but not so quick as allegro.
ALLEGRO,.... quick time.
Presto,

very quick. Prestissimo, . as quick as possible.

Adagio, andante, and allegro, are the three chief divisions of time; the other terms mark the intermediate degrees.

In addition to the foregoing terms, which mark the movement, there are others which indicate the style of performance. Some of these are as follows:

Affetuoso,. affectionate-asoft and delicate style of performance.
Brillánte, . shining, sparkling—a gay, showy style.
Furioso, ... fierce, mad-a vehement style:
Spiritóso, . spirited-a spirited style.

Sometimes these terms are used in connection with those which express the rate of movement, thus :

Allégro con spirito, quick with spirit—in a quick and spirited

manner.

The rate of movement is not definitely marked by the terms adagio, largo, larghetto, etc.; it may, however, bo designated with precision by means of the

METRONOME.

This instrument has a graduated pendulum, to which is attached a sliding weight. The higher this weight is moved upon the pendulum, the slower are its vibrations; and the contrary. When the weight corresponds to the number 50, the vibrations of the pendulum are the slowest; when it corresponds to 160, they are the quickest. All the numbers on the instrument have reference to a minute of time. Thus, when the weight is placed at 50, fifty beats or ticks occur in a minute; when at 60, sixty beats in a minute; when at 100, one hundred beats in a minute, etc.

In reading, as a general rule, the time should be marked on the metronome by whole measures--in other words, each measure should correspond to one tick of the instrument.

EXAMPLES OF THE SEVERAL MOVEMENTS.

In the following examples, the words which indicate the movement and the corresponding numbers on the metronome, are both employed.

Adagio. Metronome 60-two beats in a measure. idild. 희 1 ។ |.. ។ 1.sld. Oh when shall day dawn on the night

of the grave!

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Largo. Metronome 56-one beat in a measure.

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night.

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Larghetto. Metronome 66one beat in a measure.
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shield of my

fa - thers!

Andante. Metronome 76one beat in a measure.

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Andantino. Metronome 100-one beat in a measure.

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Allcgretto. Metronome 112—

-one beat in a measure.

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spray. * Note. — The figure 3 over the three quavers which compose the first measure, signifies that they are to be pronounced in the time of two.

Allegro con spirito. Metronome 104one beat in a measure. 융 And darkness and doubt are fly - ing a

way.

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