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PREFACE

THERE are two methods of teaching,—the synthetic and the analytia. In the synthetic method, the pupil is firsi presented with a general view of the science he is studying, and afterwards with the particulars of which it consists. The analytic method reverses this order : the pupil is first presented with the particulars, from which he is led, by certain natural and easy gradations, to those views which are more general

and comprehensive. The Scholar's Arithmetic, published in 1801, is synthetic. If that is a fault of the work, it is a fault of the times in which it appeared. The analytic or inductive method of teaching, as now applied to elomentary instruction, is among the improvements of later years. Its introduction is ascribed to Pestalozzi, a distinguished teacher in Switzerland. It has been applied to arithmetic, with great ingenuity, by Mr. COLBTrx, in our 6.22 country.

The analytic is unquestionably the best method of acquiring know ledge; the synthetic is the best method of recapitulating, or reviewing it. In a treatise designed for school education, inth methods are useful. Such is the plan of the present undertaking, which the author, occupied as he is with other objects and pursuits, would willingly have forborne, but that, the demand for the Scholar's Arithmetic still continuing, an obligation, incurred by long-continued and extended patronage, did not allow him to decline the labour of a revisal, which should adapt it to the present more enlightened views of teaching this science in our schools. In doing this, however, it has been necessary to make it a new work.

In the execution of this design, an analysis of each rule is first given, containing a familiar explanation of its various principles ; after which follows a synthesis of these principles, with questions in form of a sup: plement. Nothing is taught dogmatically ; no technical term is used till it has first been defined, nor any principle inculcated without a previous developement of its truth; and the pupil is made to understand the reason of each process as he proceeds.

The examples under each rule are mostly of a practical nature, beginning with those that are very easy, and gradually advancing to those more difficult, till one is introduced containing larger numbers, and which is not easily solved in the mind; then, in a plain, familiar manner, the pupil is shown how the solution may be facilitated by figures. In this way he is mado to see at once their usc and their application.

At the close of the fundamental rules, it has been thought advisable to collect into one clear view the distinguishing properties of those rules, and to give a number of examples involving one or more of them These exercises will prepare the pupil more readily to understand the

application of these to the succeeding rules; and, besides, will servo w interest him in the science, since he will find himself atle, by the application of a very few principles, to solve many curious questions.

The arrangement of the subjects is that, which to the author has appeared most natural, and may be seen by the Index. Fractions havo received all that consideration which their importance demands. The principles of a rule called Practice are exhibited, but its detail of cases is omitted, as unnecessary since the adoption and general use of federal ironey. The Rule of Three, or Proportion, is retained, and the solu tion of questions involving the principles of proportion, by analysis, is distinctly shown.

The articles Alligation, Arithmetical and Geometrical Progression, Annuities and Permutation, were prepared by Mr. Ira Young, & mem bor of Dartmouth College, from whose knowledge of the subject, and experience in teaching, I have derived important aid in other parts of the work.

The numerical paragraphs are chiefly for the purpose of referenco, these references the pupil should not be allowed to neglect. His at. tention also ought to be particnlarly directed, by his instructer, to the illustration of eaclı particular principle, from which general rules are deduced : for this purpose, recitations by classes ought to be instituted in every school where arithmetic is taught.

The supplements to the rules, and the geometrical demonstrations of the extraction of the square and cube roots, are the only traits of the ald work preserved in the new.

DANIEL ADAMS. Mont Vernon, (N. 1.) Sept. 29, 1827.

INDEX.

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MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.

Rarter, ex. 21–32.

| Pasition, ex. 89-108.

'To find the Area of a Square or Parallelogram, ex. 148–154.

of a 'Triangle, ux. 155-159.

llaving the Diameter of a Circle, to find the Circumference; or, haring the

Circumference, to find the Diameter, ex. 171-175

To find the Area of a Circle, ex. 176–179.

of a Globe, ex. 180, 181.

To find the Solid Contents of a Globe, ex. 182—184.

of a Cylinder, ex. 185–187.

of a Pyranid, or Cone, ex. 188, 189.

- of any Irregular Body, ex. 202, 203.
Gauging, ex. 190, 191.

| Mechanical Powers, ex. 192—201.

NUMERATION. 11. A SINGLE or individuel thing is called a unit, unity, or one ; one and one more are called two; two and one more are called three; three and one more are called four ; four and one more are called five; ve and one more are called six; six and one more are called seven; seven and one more are called eight ; eight and one more are called nine ; nine and one more are called ten, &c,

These terms, which are expressions for quantities, are called numbers. There are iwo methods of expressing numbers shorter than writing them out in words; one called the Roman method by letters, * and the other the Arabic method by figures. The latter is that in general use.

In the Arabic method, the sine first numbers have each an appropriate character to represent them. Thus,

* In the Roman method by letters, I represents one ; V, five ; X, ten; L, fifty; C, one hundred; D, five hundred; and M, one thousand.

As often as any letter is repeated, so many times its value is repeated, unless it be a letter representing a less number placed before one representing a greater ; then the less number is taken from the greater ; thus, IV represents four, IX, nine, ůc., as will be seen in the following

TABLE.
One
i.
Ninety

LXXXX. or XC.
Two
Il.

One hundred C.
Three
III.

Two hundred CC.
Four
IIII. or IV.

Three hundred CCC.
Five
V.

Four hundred CCCC,
VI.

five hundred D. or 15.*
Hevou
VII.

Six hundred DC.
Bight
VIII.

Seven hundred DCC.
Nine

VIIII. or IX. Eight hundred DCCC. 'Ten

Nine hundred DCCCC.
Twenty
XX.

One thousand M. or CIO.
S'hirty
XXX.

Five thousand 150.or V.I
Forty

XXXX. or XL Ten thousand CC135.or X.
Fifty
L.

Fifty thousand 1923.
Sixty
LX.

Hundred thousand CCCI???.or T.
Seventy
LXX.

One million M.
Eighty
LXXX.

Two million MM. • Lo is used instead of D to represent five hundred, and for every additional I an nexed at the right hand, the number is increased ten times.

+ Ct is used to represent one thousand, and for every C and put at each end, the pumpor is increased ten times.

A lino oror any pumber increases its value one thousand times.

Sis

X.

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