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for being eted at the peace of Tisit: while expeditions from Great-Britain were ent out into every quarter of:he world.

The great affairs of nations fail naturally into two classes, according to the physical divisions of the year into Summer and Autumn; and Winter and Spring: the former division, the season of action in the field; the latter, that of deliberation and debate in the councils of states, and sovereign princes. In the year 1:07, two campaigns were to be described, and an account given of the business and debates of two sessions of the British parliament.— The first campaign was terminated by the long cessation of arms, at least of field-operations, which succeeded to the horrible battle of Fysau : the second, that which was opened in the beginning of June, and terminated in the armistice that followed the decisive battle of Friedland.—To trace, if possible, assiong scenes so various, such relations and dependences as might help to weave them into some kind of narrative, more interesting than an assemblage 6f facts arranged in the mere order of time, was a task neither easy, nor to be performed in Haste, or without waiting a little for the developement of time. And the advantage, we have derived from this geconomy, which we hope will appear manifest in the History of Europe, will also, we trust, apologize for the late publication of the present volume.

Such an apology for tardy publication, may not probably, according to pre-ent appearances, occur soon again. The Continent of Europe, notwithstanding the glorious efforts of Austria and many parts of Spain, appears to be sinking fast into a state of degradation, and the servility, monotony, and barbarism of a military government.—But wherever Liberty, earrying in her train all that gives grace, dignity, and value to life, takes up her abode, it will be our busine22 to auend her: without however being inattentive to the situation, character, and fate, of the unfortunate nations she may leave behind.

J.01udon, ł. of October, 1809.

THE

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General Aspect of Europe.—Resources of the opposite Belligerent Powers—and Vietes.— Fragility of Confederations.—General Marims and Measures of Buonaparte.-Position and Strength of the French and Russian Armies.—Military Force remaining to the King of Prussia after the Battles of Jena and Pultusk.-The general Plans of the opposite Armies.—Battles of Mohringen– Bergfried—Deppen—Hoff—and Eylau.-Retreat of the French on the Vistula–and of the Russians behind the Pregel.

T the commencement of 1807, every eye was fixed on the coasts of the Baltic. It was here that the destinies of Europe were to

be decided, as they had been in

former periods, on those of the Mediterranean. The genius and the resources of the north were brought into conflict with those of the south. A mighty contest was to be decided by arms between Alexander empeVol. XLIX,

ror of Russia, and the king of Prussia on the one part, and, on the other, Buonaparte emperor of France, and king of Italy. The latter derived support from the nations whom he had subdued or intimidated, ---Italy, Spain, Holland, and a great part of Germany : the former depended on the aid of Sweden, and the cordial and vigorous co-operation of Great Britain.

- There

for being settled at the peace of Tilsit: while expeditions from Great-Britain were sent out into every quarter of the world. The great affairs of nations fall naturally into two classes, according to the physical divisions of the year into Summer and Autumn; and Winter and Spring: the former division, the season of action in the field; the latter, that of deliberation and debate in the councils of states, and sovereign princes. In the year 1807, two campaigns were to be described, and an account given of the business and debates of two sessions of the British parliament.— The first campaign was terminated by the long cessation of arms, at least of field-operations, which succeeded to the horrible battle of Eylau : the second, that which was opened in the beginning of June, and terminated in the armistice that followed the decisive battle of Friedland.—To trace, if possible, among scenes so various, such relations and dependences as might help to weave them into some kind of narrative, more interesting than an assemblage 6f facts arranged in the mere order of time, was a task neither easy, nor to be performed in haste, or without waiting a little for the developement of time. And the advantages we have derived from this oeconomy, which we hope will appear manifest in the History of Europe, will also, we trust, apologize for the late publication of the present volume. Such an apology for tardy publication, may not probably, according to present appearances, occur soon again. The Continent of Europe, notwithstanding the glorious efforts of Austria and many parts of Spain, appears to be sinking fast into a state of degradation, and the servility, monotony, and barbarism of a military government.—But wherever Liberty, carrying in her train all that gives grace, dignity, and value to life, takes up her abode, it will be our business to attend her: without however being inattentive to the situation, character, and fate, of the unfortunate nations she may leave behind. London, 18th of October, 1809.

THE

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Powers—and Vietes.—Fragility

of Confederations.—General

Maxims and Measures of Buonaparte-Position and Strength of the French and Russian Armies.—Military Force remaining to the King of Prussia after the Battles of Jena and Pultusk.-The general Plans of the opposite Armies.—Battles of Mohringen— Bergfried—Deppen–Hoff—and Eylau.-Retreat of the French on the Vistula—and of the Russians behind the Pregel.

T the commencement of 1807, every eye was fixed on the coasts of the Baltic. It was here that the destinies of Europe were to

be decided, as they had been in

former periods, on those of the Mediterranean. The genius and the resources of the north were brought into conflict with those of the south. A mighty contest was to be decided by arms between Alexander empeVol. XLIX,

ror of Russia, and the king of Prussia on the one part, and, on the other, Buonaparte emperor of France, and king of Italy. The latter derived support from the nations whom he had subdued or intimidated,---Italy, Spain, Holland, and a great part of Germany : the former depended on the aid of Sweden, and the cordial and vigorous co-operation of Great Britain.

- There

There was anotherally more powerful than either of the two just mentioned, on which the Russians might, and no doubt did reckon, namely, a rigorous climate to which they themselves were inured, but which might prove fatal to soldiers from France, Spain, and Italy. ‘The enemy too, in proportion as he should advance into Poland, or beyond it, would be drawn into difficulties and dangers on the line of his operations, in territories, with the nature or ground of which he could not be well acquainted, and farther and farther removed from supplies and reinforcements. The Russians, on the contrary, would receive reinforcements and stores both by land and sea from Russia, Sweden, and England. The young and heroic king of Sweden, emulating his ancestor the great Gustavus Adolphus, with the aid both of a subsidy, and troops from England, might march an army through the Lower Saxony, from Dantzig and Colberg, as far as Hamburgh. This ariny, augmented in its progress by insurgents, in" Hesse, Hanover, and the Prussian dominions, might pass the Elbe, and establish a war in the centre of Germany; where if he should be able to maintain himself for any length of time, he might

reasonably expect to be joined by the Austrians.—Such, it may be presumed, were the considerations that encouraged and determined the court of St. Petersburg to undertake and to persevere in the war with France. The battle of Pultusk, though bloody and obstinately contested, was indecisive: and it must be admitted that if the nations, on whose favour and co-operation. the Russians depended, had understood and pursued their respective, as well as their common interest, and harmoniously joined in one well-concerted plan of action, their design might not have proved abortive. It is, however, not physical, but moral force that governs the world : bold conception, a just discrimination between difficulty and impossibility, profound combination, unity of design, promptitude and rapidity of action. It was not physical force, but sublime genius and an ascendancy over the minds of men, that gave energy and success to the measures of Alexander of Macedon, Hannibal, and Julius Caesar. All great results spring from small, t and, at first, imperceptible origins ; one constant impulsion, constantly and uniformly accelerating. In confederations there is generally something that misgives; something false

* In consequence of the exactions of the French, there had broken out in the

territory of Hesse, a very considerable insurrection of about 10,000 men consisting principally of disbanded soldiers and peasants. Those among them who had served as non-commissioned officers, were appointed officers. They then armed themselves by seizing all the muskets, swords, and pieces of artillery they could lay their hands on. The insurrection had begun to extend itself to Hanover and Saxony, when this honest effervescence of German indignation was calmed by the prudent and paternal remonstrances of the prince of Hesse. t Natura in minimis maxima.---Pliny. The kingdoms of the earth are in this respect like the kingdom of heaven, i.e. of Jesus Christ: “The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which indeed is the least of all seeds, but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof. Mark Riii. 31-3.

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