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nagés his taxed horse, with a taxed bridle on a taxed road :-and the dying Englishman pouring his medicine, which has paid 7 per cent., into a spoon that has paid 15 per cent.--flings hime self back upon his chintz-bed which has paid 22 per cent.makes his will on an eight pound stamp, and expires in the arms of an apothecary who has paid a license of an hundred pounds for the privilege of putting him to death. His whole property is then immediately taxed from 2 to 10 per cent. Besides the probate, large fees are demanded for burying him in the chancel; his virtues are handed down to posterity on taxed marble; and he is then gathered to his fathers,-to be taxed no. more. In addition to all this, the habit of dealing with large sums will make the Government avaricious and profuse; and the system itself will infallibly generate the base vermin of spies and informers, and a still more pestilent race of political tools and retainers of the meanest and most odious description ; while the prodigious patronage which the collecting of this. splendid revenue will throw into the hands of Government, will, invest it with so vast an influence, and hold out such means and temptations to corruption, as all the virtue and public spirit, even of republicans, will be unable to resist. · Every wise Jonathan should remember this, when he sees the rabble huzzaing at the heels of the truly respectable Decatur, or inflaming the vanity of that still more popular leader, whose justification has lowered the character of his Government with all the civilized nations of the world.

Debt.--America owed 42 millions dollars after the revolutionary war; in 1790, 79 millions; in 1803, 70 millions; and in the beginning of January 1812, the public debt was diminished to 45 millions dollars. After the last war with Enge land, it had risen to 123 millions; and so it stood on the 1st January 1816. The total amount carried to the credit of the commissioners of the sinking fund, on the 31st December 1816, was about 34 millions of dollars.

Such is the land of Jonathan-and thus has it been governed. In his honest endeavours to better his situation, and in his manly purpose of resisting injury and insult, we most cordially sympathize. We hope he will always continue to watch and sus, pect his Government as he now does-remembering, that it is the constant tendency of those entrusted with power, to conceive that they enjoy it by their own merits, and for their own use, and not by delegation, and for the benefit of others. Thus far we are the friends and admirers of Jonathan: But he must not grow vain and ambitious; or allow himself to be dazzled by that galaxy of epithets by which his orators and newspaper scribblers

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endeavour to persuade their supporters that they are the greatest, the most refined, the most enlightened, and the most moral people upon earth. The effect of this is unspeakably ludicrous on this side of the Atlantic-and, even on the other, we should imagine, must be rather humiliating to the reasonable part of the population. The Americans are a brave, industrious, and acute people; but they have hitherto given no indications of genius, and made no approaches to the heroic, either in their morality or character. They are but a recent offset indeed from England; and should make it their chief boast, for many generations to come, that they are sprung from the same race with Bacon and Shakespeare and Newton. Considering their numbers, indeed, and the favourable circumstances in which they have been placed, they have yet done marvellously little to assert the honour of such a descent, or to show that their English blood has been exalted or refined by their republican training and institutions. Their Franklins and Washingtons, and all the other sages and heroes of their revolution, were born and bred subjects of the King of England,--and not among the freest or most valued of his subjects: And, since the period of their separation, a far greater proportion of their statesmen and artists and political writers have been foreigners, than ever occurred before in the history of any civilized and educated peon ple. During the thirty or forty years of their independence, they have done absolutely nothing for the Sciences, for the Arts, for Literature, or even for the statesman-like studies of Politics or Political Economy. Confining ourselves to our own country, and to the period that has elapsed since they had an independent existence, we would ask, Where are their Foxes, their Burkes, their Sheridans, their Windhams, their Horners, their Wilberforces ?-where their Arkwrights, their Watts, their Davys ?their Robertsons, Blairs, Smiths, Stewarts, Paleys and Malthuses ?— their Porsons, Parrs, Burneys, or Blomfields ? their Scotts, Campbells, Byrons, Moores, or Crabbes ?-their Siddonses, Kembles, Keans, or O'Neils ?-their Wilkies, Laurences, Chantrys?-or their parallels to the hundred other names that have spread themselves over the world from our little island in the course of the last thirty years, and blest or delighted mankind by their works, inventions, or examples ? In so far as we know, there is no such parallel to be produced from the whole annals of this self-adulating race. In the four. quarters of the globe, who reads an American book ? or goes to an American play? or looks at an American picture or statue? What does the world yet owe to American physicians or surgeons ? What new substances have their chemists discovered ?. or what old ones have they analyzed ? What new constellations have been discovered by the telescopes of Americans ?what have they done in the mathematics? Who drinks out of American glasses ? or eats from American plates ? or wears American coats or gowns? or sleeps in American blankets ?Finally, under which of the old tyrannical governments of Europe is every sixth man a Slave, whom his fellow-creatures may buy and sell and torture ? · When these questions are fairly and favourably answered, their laudatory epithets may be allowed : But, till that can be done, we would seriously advise them to keep clear of superlatives.

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Art. IV. A Critical Examination of the First Principles of

Geology; in a Series of Essays. By G. B. GREENOUGH, President of the Geological Society, F.R.S. F. L. S. 8vo. pp. 340. London, 1819.

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W e are partial, perhaps, to this book, from its hostility to

that geological dogmatism with which we have been so often offended, and its patronage of that wholesome scepticism to which we have always been so much inclined ; and yet, if it. had fallen in less happily with our own opinions, we think we should have had the candour to say, that we had never before met with such a treasure of information, and so much bold and free reasoning in so small a volume, and on such a subject. We have no time at present to grapple with the author's arguments; and it is extremely difficult to give any continuous abstract, or analysis of statements already so compactly arrayed. But we must endeavour to give our readers some notion of their general tenor, and shall touch on some of the more prominent features of each Essay-referring to the work itself for a great variety of important particulars, and especially for a rich display of illustrations and examples.

Essay I. On Stratification.-From a grca: collection of contradictory passages in the writings of eminent geologists, Mr G. proves, not only that the stratification of granite, and some other rocks, is a point not yet ascertained; but that some of the main principles connected with the doctrine of stratification in general, are by no means satisfactorily established. Thus, although the parallel planes exhibited by the surfaces of different beds, may frequently have been effected by alternate suspensions and renewals of depositions, yet the same phenomenon is often produced by other causes ; as in basaltic

pillars, in backs and cutters, in the laminæ of crystals, &c. Besides, the greater or less frequency of the recurrence of parallel planes depends on the nature of the substances deposited,-granite, porphyry, serpentine trap, salt and chalk, presenting themselves in thick masses, argillite in flakes, and sandstone ánd oolite in beds of moderate thickness. The larger divisions of rocks, too, are often not parallel to the laminæ of which they are composed : way-boards, or partings, seem to depend no less on the nature of the adjoining rocks, than on the circumstances which may be supposed to have attended their formation. At the junction of two kinds of rock, we often find a mutual impregnation of their respective substances; the contemporaneous veins of one stratum sometimes penetrate into that which is contiguous to it; and decomposition or torrefaction will frequently reveal stratification which was formerly latent. From all these circumstances we are warranted to infer, that adjoining strata may, in some instances, be contemporaneous, and that, at all events, stratification is not uniformly the effect of alternate cessations and repetitions of deposition.

Mr G. shows, in like manner, that a great diversity of opinion obtains relative to the position of rocks, and that, though vertical planes occur more frequently among those of primitive than among those of secondary character, yet every rock, in different parts of its course, exhibits both the vertical and horizontal position, as is copiously illustrated by examples.

He then confronts the arguments which have been alleged in favour of the original horizontality of strata, with those which have been urged in support of their original verticality, or, at least, of their high inclination to the horizon; stating, at the same time, with his usual candour, the difficulties which press on the different hypotheses which have been advanced with a view to account for such an inclination. This abstract or summary of the conflicting arguments is drawn up with great talent and admirable brevity. The curvatures and angularities of mineral masses and strata, with the consideration of their probable causes, likewise pass under his review.

• It is supposed by Mr Playfair,' he observes, that the curvature is generally, if not universally, simple, like the superficies of a cylinder, not double like that of a sphere;this is a mistake. — As an instance of curvature extending in both directions, we may mention mantle-shaped strata. This appearance, though it has been most observed in primitive rocks, is by no means peculiar to these : in the north of England the limestone mantles round the slate; the coal-measures of Derbyshire mantle round the limestone. - When masses or strata decline upon every side towards a certain point, they are said to be basinshaped. Such is the disposition of the mountain limestone at Ormes

VOL. XXXIII, NO. 65.

head, of the coal in South Wales, of the chalk in the north of Ireland. The clam-shell cave at Staffa was probably so named, from the conchoidal form which it derives from curvature in the strata. – It is suposed that on the great Clee hill in Shropshire, there are no less than seven distinct coal-fields ; the principal of them is covered by basalt, which varies in thickness from 60 yards to 0, though this coal field is only two miles in length, and one and a half in breadth : the strata dipping to a common centre, the thickness diminishes towards the circumerence. — Another coal-field, a quarter of a mile in diameter, situate on the same hill, crops out in both directions. — In all these cases, the curvature is plainly not cylindrical, but spherical.'

In the same spirit, this intrepid reasoner attacks the Huttonian notion of a horizontal elevation of the strata while in a flexible and ductile state; and observes, 1. that such a state could have no existence, there being in these substances no intermediate stage between fluidity and consolidation : 2. that the operation of the alleged cause would have given rise to other indications of disturbance, which do not actually appear : 3. that in many cases, no such cause can have operated, as the curved strata rest on horizontal ones, which betray no symptoms of curvature: 4. that even supposing its operation to have taken place, the effects ought to have been very different from actual appearances : 5. that the hypothesis does not account for curvature in horizontal strata : and, lastly, that the conformity of different strata is another circumstance fatal to this hypothesis. " There is no species of rock in which the * curves are more frequent, or more fantastical, ihan greywacké • slate: this rock, we know, in many instances, alternates with

conglomerate, the pebbles of which are disposed in such a • manner, that it would be impossible for them to remain an • instant in the place which they occupy, if the cement which 6 connects them together were to become soft. The conglo

merate, therefore, and consequently the slate which alternates 6 with it, could not have been elevated till after its consolida« tion. If, then, as the Huttonians say, it was not consolidated 6 till after it was curved; neither was it elevated till after it was 6 curved : in other words, the effect preceded the cause.'

Regarding the principle of crystallization as alike inadequate to explain the phenomenon of curvature, Mr Greenough conjectures, that it may depend sometimes on the unequal effect produced by temperature on the materials of which the masses are composed, sometimes on the motions of the fluid from which they were deposited, and sometimes on the form of the bottom on which they rest; and the cases to which he alludes, cer

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