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Wealth, properly employed, would create more wealth; an industrious and keen-minded population, when in full, permanent, and remunerative occupation, would have their energies and talents devoted to useful pursuits, instead of to a pernicious political agitation, and the whole British Empire would become a participator in the general tranquillity and productive industry of the people of Ireland. To England there would be great gain by the increased prosperity of Ireland. Notwithstanding its manifest improvement since the Union, the consumption of British manufactures in Ireland is not more than one guinea per annum for each inhabitant of Ireland, -whereas the negroes in the West Indies consume each five pounds worth per annum of British manufactures, and their fellow-subjects in Australasia, each to the extent of fifteen pounds worth annually.

If English capital were judiciously employed in Ireland, land, which now only yields one-third per acre of the same produce as in England, would contribute largely for domestic use as well as for exportation ; the Irish would become a consuming as well as a producing people, and instead of requiring merely seven to eight millions worth annually of British manufactures, their wants might soon be increased, and the demand for manufactures be raised to at least five pounds a head yearly, thus requiring annually of British goods to the amount of forty millions sterling.

Fervently hoping, Sir, that the British Government and Legislature will preserve in its integrity and puissance this great and glorious Empire, and adopt and carry into effect just and practical measures really conducive to the welfare of Ireland, I have the honour to inscribe myself,

With sincere respect,
Your obedient and faithful Servant,

R. M. MARTIN.

LONDON,

December, 1843.

• In

“ The national benefits derivable from communication by railway are now universally admitted, and the period, it is to be hoped, has arrived for extending to Ireland a portion of the advantages which rapid and economical transit confer on agriculture and commerce, by which the welfare of the Sister Island, as well as that of England, will be materially promoted, and the unity of the British empire strengthened and consolidated. The Irish Railway Commissioners, among other advantages derivable from railways in Ireland, make the following remarks :

“A well-arranged system of railways in Ireland would have the effect of continuing and extending throughout the country the benefits which the outports have obtained by the introduction of steam-vessels. The subsisting relations of business and commerce would be thereby extended and enlarged, and others formed, opening fresh resources to the industry and enterprise of the trading portion of the community ; while an object of no less consideration would be immediately attained, in rendering agricultural produce, which may be called the grand staple of this country, at the same time more profitable to the producers, and accessible on easier terms to the principal purchasers and consumers.' short, where the capabilities of the system are brought fully into operation, they present such an accumulation of advantages, as to render it an instrument of unequalled power in advancing the prosperity of a country.'–Irish Railway Commissioners' Report, pp. 91 and 95.

“ The line between Dublin and Cork, passing through, or connected with, several of the principal towns in Ireland — with the richest intervening agricultural counties--some of the most populous districts, and, in proportion to its length, the fewest natural impediments-offers the greatest inducements for the formation of a railway, which shall

connect the Irish metropolis with one of the finest harbours in the world. The Railway Commissioners appointed by the Crown, in 1836, make the following observations on this point :—We earnestly recommend that every effort be made to combine into one interest, and under one management and control, the whole

of the southern system of communication between Dublin and Cork, Limerick, Waterford, and Kilkenny. If a body of capitalists be found ready to undertake this great work as a whole, we presume that the general feeling of the Legislature and of the country will be to leave the execution of it as little fettered as possible, by restriction to the management of private enterprise ; and, in addition to this, it would be just and advisable to relieve them from all needless expenses, to which, otherwise, in the existing state of the law they would be liable. With this view we recommend particularly that the Act of Parliament be granted free of any charge, as for a public measure ; that a mode of determining the amounts to be paid in compensation of land and damages be adopted on principles more fixed and independent of private or local bias than the present practice, and that some general enactment be provided, authorising to a certain extent alterations of obvious utility, to be introduced with the original plan, without the costly expedient of resorting in every case to Parliament for a new or amended act. To accomplish so important an object as that contemplated, we may look forward to a certain degree of assistance from the state, as great, at least, as has been given for the encouragement of other public works in Ireland ; and on those grounds of policy which, we believe, have not been disputed. We therefore suggest that Government should advance, by way of loan, a considerable proportion of the amount of the estimates, at the lowest rate of interest, and on the easiest terms of repayment, to be secured by a mortgage of the works.'–Irish Railway Commissioners' Report, 1838, p. 94.

“ The very moderate rate at which the land necessary for the formation of the railway may be obtained-the general flatness of the country through which it is intended to pass, and along which no tunnelling will be requisite—the absence of numerous cross-roads and canals, thus saving the heavy expense of bridges and viaducts the avoidance of engineering expense, on account of the line having been already surveyed and laid down

by Government-the low wages of labour, together with the reduced price of stone, lime, and timber, and the diminished cost for termini at the principal towns in Ireland compared with England, justify the expectation of the work being accomplished within the given estimate ; while increasing prosperity and augmenting traffic afford the most satisfactory prospect of an ample and enhanced return for the capital that may be invested, the calculations being the result of actual data, prepared by the official authorities for the information of Government."

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Dublin 345 307 335,891 379,739 170,9302

22,014 Wicklow

781 439 110,767) 122,301 63,489 Wexford 897

3,847 798 170,806 182,991 97,918

9,217 Carlow.

345

288 78,952 81,649 42,428 Kildare 654

99,114 12,697

LEINSTER.

7,742 558 99,065 111,141 58,0301 Kilkenny

795 735 181,946 193,432 Longford

1,815 421 300 107,570 112,391 57,610 Louth 314

3,143 280 101,011 125,546 54,651 King's County

1,681 771 527 131,088 148,984 72,651 Queen's County

3,596 662 535 134,275 145,843 76,403 Westmeath

5,060 708

70,385 571128,819 166,883

$,149 East Meath 906 856 159,183 190,309 100,140

$,014 Total of the Province 7,599 6,194 1,739,373 1,961,109 963,647 1,06

3,975

ULSTER.

Antrim

1,161 787 262,860 372,938 172,391 1
Armagh .

512
415 197,427 220,653 113,892 is

3,937
Cavan
746 587 195,076 228,040 120,814 15

32,782 Down 954 804 325,410 360,853 173,538 18

3,810

6,690 Donegal

1,865 615 248,270 300,694 145,821 1
Londonderry
808 498 193,869 222,416 106,825 il

,683 Tyrone

1,260 704 261,865 304,247 153,463 15
Monaghan

500 447 174,697 195,532
Fermanagh
714 452 130,997 147,555 76,982

7,281

1,203 Total of the Province 8,520 5,309 1,990,471 2,353,928 1,161,797 1,29

1,990

7,667

98,071 10,937

MUNSTER.

Cork

2,875 2,045 730,444 857,576 420,551 43 Kerry

1,853 648 216,185 263,280 147,307 14,124 Clare

1,293 711 208,089 263,262 144,109 14,091 Limerick

1,060 824 277,617 200,080 161,997 14,683 Tipperary

1,656 1,318 346,896 406,977 216,650 21, Waterford 719 509 156,521 172,519

95,576 10

7,527

1,951 Total of the Province 9,456 6,055 1,935,752 2,163,694 1,186,1901,29,026 Galway

2,445 1,161 165,679 429,211 219,564 22
Leitrim.
613 390) 124,785 145,457

77,501

0,692 Mayo

2,1301 778 293,112 367,961 194,198 19,790 Roscommon

949 689 208,729 246,601 127,016 12 Sligo.

721 455 146,229 171,508 89,563 Total of the Province 6,858 3,473 938,534 1,360,738 707,852 71

,121

CONNAUGHT.

1,479

9,334

1,825

Grand Total. 32,433 21,0316,604,1307,839,469 4,019,486 4,15

1539

lence t

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