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That pte of America (by the Dutch) called the New Netherlands lieth in 40 deg" od minutes of northerlie lat? the place of the residence of the Dutch Gouer? (who stiles himselfe Director Generall of New Netherlands, & Admirall of the northerne ptes of America) is vppon an Isl! by the Indians called Manahatans which lieth in the mid-waye betwixt Boston in New Engl! and Virginia vppon the sowthwest point of the s? Isl? they haue a considerable ffort of some 30 peeces of ordinance brasse, Canon, demi Culuerin, & others, since the yeare 1647 they haue much emproued their buildings aboute it, that it is now Called the ffort & Cittie of New Amsterdam, allthough in the yeares 1641, & 1642 there was not six howses of free Burgers in it, but now there is many, so that they make ypp two Companies vnder the Comand of their seuerall Captaines besides the maine garrison which is Constantlie kepte there which att most neuer exceedes 70 besides officers.

They haue had two seuerall warres with the Indians, the first in the yeare 1641: the Indians first killed two Dutchmen att seuerall times in seuerall places vppon pretence of their vsurping & taking away their land without giueing them satisfaction, att the which the then Gouern Will Kieft was faine to conniue at for


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the present, and the sa Indians being forced to retire more towards the sea side for feare of the Highland Ind putting themselues vnder the protection of the Dutch ffort. seating themselues within Canon shott thereof: neuerthelesse the s! Dutch Gouern" Kieft made oute a ptie against them and killed some 60 men, women, & children, in the night time, when they little expected any such matter from the Dutch, but in requitall the Indians presentlie betooke themselues to their Arines & killed more of the Dutch, burning their farmes destroying their Cattle; But the Dutch Gouern" (findeing himselfe to weake for the Indians & planting time Comeing on) pswaded them to accept of a peace and that all differences on either side might be forgotten which the Indians as seeminglie for their owne ends embraced, and held verie faire Correspondencie vntill such time as they had got in their Crop of Corne

In the interim the sa Dutch Gouern as aforewritten findeing his forces to weake for the Indians inuited seuerals of the English in New Englto come & liue vnder his gouerm promising them many & large priu. ilidges vppon which many that were tyranised ouer by the partialitie & rigidnes of that gouerm both in the ecclesiasticall & Ciuill pollicie thereof, & for the betterment of their accomodation in lands betooke themselues vnder the protection of the Dutch, and the Indians the yeare followeing (not forgetting the former iniurie of the Dutch & their daily vsurping vppon their rights) renued the warre with more violencie then euer, and had then ytterlie rooted oute the s' Dutch, had it not bynne for a small ptie of the s' English that were entertained in pay which gaue a Checke to their pceedings; neuerthelesse ye Burgers and ffarmers were so affrighted that by coñon Counsell of them all they were resolued to haue put themselues & lands vnder the absolute Comand, & ptectio of the English in New Engl! had not the Gouern" himselfe & the English that came from thence mainlie opposed it, & entertaining more of them in pay, whom the Indians did

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more feare then all the Dutch saying oftentimes to the sa English what wrong haue we done to yow? that vee should fight for the Dutch against vs telling them that if they would leaue the Dutch to themselues, they would kill them all & give them the land. so that for the reasons affores" I may trulie say that those of New Engl? were and are the cheif Cause that the Dutch are growne to that height, and their encroachments vppon his Malies rights in those ptes. So that now They make Claime to a large Tract of land, & that to begin att the Westermost point of land leading into Deleware riuer by them called Cape Hinlopen, & from thence Eastward to Cape Cod by them renamed Cape Mallebar, in the which is included all Prouidence pte of New Plimouth, & all Connoticot and Newhauen Collonies with all the Isl? adiacentent (sic) to the eastward, and all that portion of land to the Westward granted by pattent to S! Edmund Plowden, & in pursuance thereof have attempted seuerall wayes either by force or pollicie for the displanting his Maiesties subiects in those partes, volesse they would submit to their gouerment and acknowledge them as Lords paramount of the said lands as shall be made to appeare by seuerall perticulars in the ensuing relation

The sa Cittie New Ansterodam is very delightsome & conuenient for scituation especiallie for trade haueing two maine streames or riuers running by, with an excellent harbour; the end of the s' Riuers or Streames is ye ordinary passage from & to New Engl? and Virginia, the other up a riuer most comonlie called Hudsons riuer, as being first discouered by one Hudson, an Englishman. Many ancient Indians report that it was an English flag they first saw in the s' riuer & that an Englishman was the first that traded with them & that for certaine Kettles, Hatchets, Kniues & other trading ware_they gaue the s« Englishman that land, where the Dutch Fort & Cittie now standeth. some 40 : or 50 leagues vp the s' Hudsons riuer they haue a small plantacion or Collonie called Renchliew's Wicke, with a

small fort Called Ourania belonging to the West Indie Chamber of Ansterdă in Holland, where they haue a very greate and rich trade with a nation of Indians Called the Mohocks, & that for most sort of furres especiallie Beeuer Skinns, principallie in exchange for powder, gunnes and lead, by meanes whereof as they haue generallie learnt the vse of those sort of Armes & to keepe them very well fixt, so they are become very expert marksinen, and being plentifullie supplied by the Dutch. haue many times inuaded the French themselues, & French Indians vppon Canada, & being sensible of their owne strength the Dutches Covetousnes & timerousnes keepe the sa Dutch themselues there in a very slauish Condition & is feared may proue very preiudiciall if not distructiue to his Maties Westerne Collonies of New Engl

In the yeare 1641 : Captaine Daniell How & other Englishmen purchased a considerable tract of land, of the Indian proprietours on the westerne pte of Long Isl! beginning to settle themselues there, the affores ? Gouern" Kieft sent a Company of souldiers & seised the psons of the su English putting them in Irons threatning them to send them prisoners for Holland, vnlesse they would promise him to desert the sa place thereby forcing them to quit their right & interest they had thereunto

In the same yeare certaine psons of qualitie of the English nation inhabitants of Newhauen in New Engl! disbursing Considerable summes of money & to einproue yo English rights in those ptes purchased seuerall tracts of land of the Indian natiues in Deleware riuer, & setled certaine families there, the afforesa Gouern" Kieft Combining with the Swedish Gouern" then there disposessed the su English of their rights, ceising vppon their Arines & goods, to the losse of the aduenturers in the generall of aboue 1000? sterling besides what the pticular plantors suffered therein, & were not wanting of an Amboina plott in imprisoning one M Geo: Lamberton the principall pson then there of the English

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nation, threatning to take away his life vppon pretence of his Complotting with the Indians against him.

In the yeare 1647: the present Dutch Gouern" Peter Styvesant succeeding Kieft in the gouernem so for their further prosecution of their designe in vsurping vppon the rights of the English. some two moneths after his settlem! in his said gouernm' (in an hostile way) surprised a ship in Newhauen harbour, of very good value belonging to a Dutch merchant who had put himselfe vnder the protection of the English & was admitted as a plantor amongst them the then Gouern' of Newhauen, M: Theophilus Eaton by his letters directed to the sd Styvesant protested against the s! Violence & breach of peace, but the said Styvesant (insted of giueing satisfaction) added a further iniurie in Claiming by his letters responsitorie the s? Newhauen as a member belonging to his gouerm & vppon that pretence made prize of the sa ship & goods.

The same yeare M: Thomas Pell of Newhauen affores? furnisht & rigd oute a Vessell to trade with the Swedes and Natiues in Deleware riuer, and the vessell only retourning by the Manahatans the Comon & vsuall passage, the affores? Dutch Gouern" Compeld them to pay (as they call it) recognition what he pleased to demand, for whatsoever they had traded for in the riuer, allthough the Dutch had not then any Considerable interest in the s? riuer, not by the hundred pte att least to what the English had bought and paid for to the Indians the right owners, haueing likewise a better right to it then any other nation in Europe, neuerthelesse hee would not pmit any English vessell to passe by the said Isl: of Manahatans vnlesse they would first put him in securitie for the payment of the said recognition, & acknowledge him as proprietour of the s? riuer by accepting Commissions froin him, which all refusing they lost the opportunitie of their intended voyages to theire very great damage

The Comissioners for the vnited Collonies of New Eng?? taking into theire considerations these and many

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