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11. Ingenui sunt, qui liberi nati sunt; libertini, qui ex iusta servitute manumissi sunt.

12. Rursus libertinorum tria sunt genera : nam aut cives Romani, aut Latini, aut dediticiorum numero sunt. de quibus singulis dispiciamus; ac prius de dediticiis.

DE DEDITICIIS VEL LEGE AELIA SENTIA. 13. Lege itaque Aelia Sentia cavetur, ut qui servi a dominis poenae nomine vincti sint, quibusve stigmata inscripta sint, deve quibus ob noxam quaestio tormentis habita sit et in ea noxa fuisse convicti sint, quique ut ferro aut cum bestiis depugnarent traditi sint, inve ludum custodiamve coniecti fuerint, et postea vel ab eodem domino vel ab alio manumissi, eiusdem condicionis liberi fiant, cuius condicionis sunt peregrini dediticii. [DE PEREGRINIS DEDITICIIs.] (14.) Vocantur autem peregrini dediticii hi qui quondam adversus populum Romanum armis susceptis pugnaverunt, deinde, ut victi sunt, se dediderunt. (15.) Huius ergo turpitudinis servos quocumque modo

II. Ingenui are those who are born free: libertini are those who have been manumitted from servitude recognized by the law.

12. Of libertini again there are three classes, for they are either Roman citizens, or Latins, or in the category of the dediticii. Let us consider these one by one, and first as to dediticii.

13. It is provided then by the Lex Aelia Sentia', that such slaves as have been put in chains by their masters by way of punishment, or have been branded, or examined by torture on account of misdeed, and convicted of the misdeed, or have been delivered over to fight with the sword or against wild-beasts, or cast into a gladiatorial school or a prison, and have afterwards been manumitted either by the same or another master, shall become freemen of the same class whereof are peregrini dediticii. 14. Now those are called peregrini dediticii who aforetime have taken up arms and fought against the Roman people, and then, when conquered, have surrendered themselves. 15. Slaves then who have been visited

1 Enacted A. D. 4. Ulpian, I. 1. D. 40.9.

Civis Romani and Latini.

et cuiuscumque aetatis manumissos, etsi pleno iure dominorum fuerint, numquam aut cives Romanos aut Latinos fieri dicemus, sed omni modo dediticiorum numero constitui intellegemus.

16. Si vero in nulla tali turpitudine sit servus, manumissum modo civem Romanum, modo Latinum fieri dicemus. (17.) Nam in cuius persona tria haec concurrunt, ut maior sit annorum triginta, et ex iure Quiritium domini, et iusta ac legitima manumissione liberetur, id est vindicta aut censu aut testamento, is civis Romanus fit: sin vero aliquid eorum deerit, Latinus erit.

DE MANUMISSIONE VEL CAUSAE PROBATIONE.

18. Quod autem de aetate servi requiritur, lege Aelia Sentia introductum est. nam ea lex minores xxx annorum servos non aliter voluit manumissos cives Romanos fieri, quam si vindicta, aput consilium iusta causa manumissionis adprobata,

with such disgrace, in whatever manner and at whatever age they have been manumitted, even although they belonged to their masters in full title', we shall never admit to become Roman citizens or Latins, but shall under all circumstances understand to be put in the category of dediticii.

16. But if a slave have fallen under no such disgrace, we shall say, that when manumitted he becomes in some cases a Roman citizen, in others a Latin. 17. For in whatsoever man's person these three qualifications are united, (1) that he be above thirty years of age; (2) the property of his master “ ex jure Quiritium ;” and (3) liberated by a regular and lawful manumission, i.e. by vindicta, census, or testament", such an one becomes a Roman citizen: but if any one of these qualifications be wanting he will be a Latin.

18. The requirement as to the age of the slave was introduced by the Lex Aelia Sentia. For that law prohibited slaves manumitted under thirty years of age from becoming Roman citizens unless they were liberated by vindicta after lawful

1 "Pleno jure" ="ex jure Quiritium ;" i. e. not merely “in bonis :" for the signification of which terms see II. 40. Compare also $ 17 below.

2 For further information as to dediticii see III. 74; Ulp. I. II.

3 11. 267, 276. Sandars' Justinian, p. 91. Niebuhr is of opinion that the rights which ensued upon the various kinds of manumission, were not identical, Hist. of Rome, Vol. I. p. 594. Ulpian, 1. 6, 8, 10, 12, 16.

Lawful causes for Manumission: the Council.

liberati fuerint. (19.) Iusta autem causa manumissionis est veluti si quis filium filiamve, aut fratrem sororerve naturalem, aut alumnum, aut paedagogum, aut servum procuratoris habendi gratia, aut ancillam matrimonii causa, aput consilium, manumittat. (DE RECUPERATORIBUS.] (20.) Consilium autem adhibetur in urbe Roma quidem quinque senatorum et quinque equitum Romanorum puberum; in provinciis autem viginti recuperatorum civium Romanorum. idque fit ultimo die conventus : sed Romae certis diebus aput consilium manumittuntur. Maiores vero triginta annorum servi semper manumitti solent, adeo ut vel in transitu manumittantur, veluti cum Praetor aut Proconsule in balneum vel in theatrum eat. (21.) Praeterea minor triginta annorum servus manumissione potest civis Romanus fieri, si ab eo domino qui șolvendo non erat, testamento eum liberum et heredem relictum—[desunt lin. 24).

cause for manumission had been approved before the council. 19. Now lawful cause for manumission is, for instance, where one manumits before the council a son or daughter, or natural brother or sister, or foster-child, or personal attendant, or slave with the intent of making him his procurator?, or female slave for the purpose of marrying her.

20. Now the council consists in the city of Rome of five Senators and five Knights, Romans of the age of puberty? : in the provinces of twenty Recuperatoress, Roman citizens. And this proceeding (the manumission) takes place on the last day of their assembly, whereas at Rome men are manumitted before the council on certain fixed days. But slaves over thirty years of age can be manumitted at any time, so that they can be manumitted even in transitu, for instance when the Praetor or Proconsul is on his way to the bath or the theatre. 21. Further a slave under thirty years of age can by manumission become a Roman citizen, if (it were declared) by an insolvent master in his will that he was left free and an heir......

i IV. 84 ? 1. 196.

3 Recuperatores. See Lord Mackenzie's Roman Law, p. 310, and Cicero pro Tullio, 8. The name

was subsequently applied to officers holding an analogous position in the provinces. Ulpian, 1. 13 a; cf. Plin. Ep. III. 20.

4 11. 154 ; Ulpian, I. 14.

Latini Juniani and Lex Junia.

22. ...manumissi sunt, Latini Iuniani dicuntur : Latini ideo, quia adsimulati sunt Latinis coloniariis ; Iuniani ideo, quia per legem Iuniam libertatem acceperunt, cum olim servi viderentur esse. (23.) Non tamen illis permittit lex Iunia nec ipsis testamentum facere, nec ex testamento alieno capere, nec tutores testamento dari. (24.) Quod autem diximus ex testamento eos capere non posse, ita intellegendum est, ut nihil directo hereditatis legatorumve nomine eos posse capere dicamus; alioquin per fideicommissum capere possunt.

25. Hi vero qui dediticiorum numero sunt nullo modo ex testamento capere possunt, non magis quam qui liber peregri

22. ......... are manumitted are called Latini Funiani; Latini because they are put on the same footing with the Latin colonists: Funiani because they have received their liberty under the Lex Junia”, whereas in former times they were considered to be slaves“. 23. The Lex Junia does not, however, allow them either to make a testament for themselves, or to take anything by virtue of another man's testament, or to be appointed tutors (guardians) by testament. 24. Nevertheless our statement that they cannot take under a testament must be thus understood, that we affirm that they can take nothing directly by way of inheritance or legacy; they can, on the other hand, take by fideicommissum.

25. But those who are in the category of dediticii cannot take under a testament at all, any more than can one who is free

1 The general sense of the lost bulk of the population, however, words at the beginning of this pa- being debarred from conubium, ragraph no doubt was that those and those who held magistracies who were manumitted, though not alone receiving Roman citizenship. fulfilling all the three conditions of See note on I. 95. This franchise $ 17, were Junian Latins. Read 111. Niebuhr calls “minus Latium,Hist. 56.

of Rome, Vol. 11. pp. 77–81. 2 The Latin colonists here meant 3 Lex Junia Norbana, A. D. 19. are not the inhabitants of the old 4 In ancient times slaves manumitLatin towns (whose franchise is called ted irregularly only held their liberty majus Latium by Niebuhr), who had on sufferance. Their masters could fuil civic rights by the Julian law: recall them into slavery, hence “ olim but the colonists and inhabitants of servi videbantur esse." III. 56; Ul. the towns of Cisalpine Gaul, who pian, 1. 12. were raised to the rank of Latins by ó 1. 144... a law of Cn. Pompeius Strabo ; the 6 JI. 246.

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nusque est. nec ipsi testamentum facere possunt secundum quod plerisque placuit. (26.) Pessima itaque libertas eorum est qui dediticiorum numero sunt: nec ulla lege aut senatusconsulto aut constitutione principali aditus illis ad civitatem Romanam datur. (27.) Quin et in urbe Roma vel intra centesimum urbis Romae miliarium morari prohibentur; et si contra fecerint, ipsi bonaque eorum publice venire iubentur ea condicione, ut ne in urbe Roma vel intra centesimum urbis Romae miliarium serviant, neve umquam manumittantur; et si manumissi fuerint, servi populi Romani esse iubentur. et haec ita lege Aelia Sentia conprehensa sunt.

QUIBUS MODIS LATINI AD CIVITATEM ROMANAM PERVENIANT.

28. Latini multis modis ad civitatem Romanam perveniunt. (29.) Statim enim eadem lege Aelia Sentia cautum est, ut minores triginta annorum manumissi et Latini facti, si uxores duxerint vel cives Romanas, vel Latinas coloniarias, vel eiusdem condicionis cuius et ipsi essent, idque testati fu

and a foreigner; nor can they, according to general opinion, make a testament themselves'. 26. The liberty, therefore, of those who are in the category of dediticii is of the lowest kind, nor is access to Roman citizenship allowed them by any lex, senatusconsultum, or imperial constitution. 27. Nay more, they are forbidden to dwell within the city of Rome or within a hundred miles of the city of Rome, and if they transgress this rule they themselves and their goods are ordered to be sold publicly, with the proviso that they do not serve as slaves within the city of Rome nor within a hundred miles of the city of Rome, and be never manumitted : and if they be manumitted they are ordered to become slaves of the Roman people. And these things are so laid down in the Lex Aelia Sentia.

28. Latins attain to Roman citizenship in many ways. 29. For it was expressly provided by the same Lex Aelia Sentia, that slaves manumitted under the age of thirty years and made Latins, if they have married wives who are either Roman citizens, or Latin colonists, or of the same condition of which they themselves were, and have made attestation of

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