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Capitis diminutio. 55
159. Est autem capitis diminutio prioris capitis permuta/w. mque tribus modis accidit: nam aut maxima est capitis dimi« nutio, aut minor quam quidam mediam vocant, aut minima.
160. Maxima est ¿apitis diminutio, cum aliquis simul et
civitatem et libertatem ammittit; quae qui ex
patria [3J lin.]; item feminae liberae ex senatusconsulto Claudiano ancillae fiunt eorum dominorum, Quvomi, invitis et denunciantibus nihilo xc&nus cum servis eorum coierint.
161. Minor capitis diminutio est, cum civitas quidem amittitur, libertas vero retinetur. quod accidit ei cui aqua et igni interdictum fuervt.
162. Minima capitis diminutio est, cum et ¿z'z'itas et liber
159. Capitis diminution is the change of the original caput, and occurs in three ways; for it is either the capitis diminutio maxima; or the minor, which some call media; or the minima.
160. The maxima capitis diminutio is when a man loses at once both citizenship and liberty, which (happens to those) who (are expelled) from their country": likewise free women by virtue of a senatusconsultum of Claudius become slaves of those masters with whose slaves, in spite of their wish and warning, they have cohabited3.
161. The minor capitis diminutio is when citizenship indeed is lost, but liberty retained, which happens to a man interdicted from fire and water4.
162. The minima capitis diminutio is when citizenship and
1 Ulpian, XI. 9—13. Status and (1) Liberty, (2) Citizenship, (3) Facaput are not identical in Roman mily. (1) includes (2) and (3); (2) law: a slave is often said to have includes (3), therefore by the maxistatus, but it is also affirmed of him ma c. d, all these elements are lost, that he has "nullum caput* Austin by the media all but liberty, by the is of opinion that "status and caput minima family alone. are not synonymous expressions, but 2 This is Huschke's emendation, that the term caput signifies certain his complete filling up of the passage conditions which are capital or prin- being: "qui ex patria jure gentium cipal: which cannot be acquired or violato peregrinis populis per patrem lost without a mighty change in the patratum deduntur." For informalegal position of the party." Caput tion as to the pater patratus, connecessarily implies the possession suit a classical dictionary, or read of rights: status generally implies pp. 16—18 of Kent's International the possession of rights, but may Lav) (Abdy's edition), Cic pro Caec. imply mere obnoxiousness to duties, 34 ; Livy, I. 24, 32. e. g. the status of a slave. See 3 Ulpian. 1. 91; x1. 11. Austin, Lecture XII. Caput includes * 1. 90, 128.
56 Capitis diminutio. Tutela legitima patronorum.
tas retinetur, sed status hominis commutatur. quod accidit in his qui adoptantur, item in his qui coemptionem faciunt, et in his qu/ mancipio dantur, quique ex mancipatione manumittantur; adeo quidem, ut quotienj quisque mancipetur, a.ut remancipetur, totiens capite diminuatur. (163.) Nec solum raaioribus diminutionibus ius adgnationis corrumpitur, sedetiam minima. et ideo si ex duobus liberis alterum pater emancipaverit, post obitum mis neuter alteri adgnationis iur<? tutor esse poterit.
164. Cum autem ad agnatos tutela pertinet, non simul ad omnes pertinet, set ad eos tantum qui proximo gradu sunt. [desunt lin. 24.]
165. Ex eadem lege duodecim tabularum libertorum et libertarum tutela ad patronos liberosque eorum pertinet, quae et ipsa legitima tutela vocatur: non quia nominatim ea lege de hac tutela cavetur, sed quia perinde accepta est per interpretationem, atque si verbis legis introducta esset. eo enim ipso, quod hereditates libertorum. libertarumque, si intestati dec<?SsLs\rent, iusserat lex
liberty are retained, but the status of a man is changed; which is the case with persons adopted, likewise with those who make a coemptio, and with those who are given in maticipium, and with those who are manumitted after mancipation1: so that indeed as often as a man is mancipated or remancipated, so often does he suffer capitis diminutio. 163. Not only by the greater diminutiones is the right of agnation destroyed, but even by the least; and therefore if a father have emancipated one of two sons, neither can after his death be tutor to the other by right of agnation.
164. In cases, however, when the tutelage devolves on the agnates, it does not appertain to all simultaneously but only to those who are in the nearest degree
165. By virtue of the same law of the Twelve Tables the tutelage of freedmen and freedwomen devolves on the patrons and their children, (and this too is styled a tutela legitima): not because express provision is made in that law with respect to this tutelage, but because it is gathered by construction as surely as if it had been set down in the words of the law. For from the very fact that the law ordered the inheritances of Tutela fiduciaria. 57
11. 110, 116, 133.
ad patronos liberosve eorum pertinere, crediderunt veteres voluisse legem etiam tutelas ad eos pertinere, cum et agnatos quos ad hereditatem vocavit, eosdem et tutores esse iusserat.
166. Exemplo patronorum etiam fiduc\ar\a.e tutelae xeceptae sunt. eae enim tntelae scilicet fiduciar/ae vocantur flroprie, quae ideo no3is competunt, quia liberum carmX. mancipatum nobis vel a parente vel a coemptionatore manumiserimus. (167.) Set Latinarum et Latinoraw ittTmberum tutela non omni modo ad manumissores, sicut bona eorum, pertinet, sed ad eos quorum ante «ra7zwmissionem ex iure Quiritium/w^wtf: unde si ancilla ex iure Quiritium tua sit, in bonis mea, a me quidem solo, non
freedmen and freedwomen, in case of their dying intestate, to belong to the patrons or their children, the ancients concluded that the law intended their tutelages also to devolve on them, since it ordered that the agnates too, whom it called to the inheritance, should be tutors as well1.
166. Fiduciary tutelages have been admitted into use upon the precedent of patronal tutelages3. For those are properly called fiduciary tutelages which devolve upon us, because we have manumitted a free person who has been mancipated to us either by a parent or a coemptionator. 167. But the tutelage of Latin women or Latin men under puberty does not in all cases appertain to their manumittors, as their goods do, but devolves on those whose property they were ex jure Qtdritium before manumission3: therefore if a female slave be yours ex jure Quiritium, mine in bonis, if manumitted by me alone and
1 The argument is: title "in bonis." (See II. 40.) For
(1) The agnates who have the by reading 1. 54, we see that if the inheritance, also have the tutelage. legal ownership was separated from
(2) Therefore the inheritance and the beneficial, the beneficial owner, the tutelage, the benefit and the bur- i. e. the owner in bonis, having the den, devolve on the same persons. potestas, had the power of manumis
(3) Now the patrons have the in- sion. The general rule in the case heritance by the express words of of tutelages which were for the profit the law. of the tutor as well as the pupil,
(4) Therefore they also have the was that the benefit (the right of tutelage. inheritance) should go with the bur
* I. 114, 115, 195. Ulpian, xI. 5. den (the tutelage proper), but in
3 The manumittor might be owner this paragraph Gaius is pointing out
both "in bonis," and "ex jure Qui- an exception. Ulpian, xI. 19.
ritium," or he might only have the
58 Tutela cessicia.
etiam a te manumisa, ~Latina f/'eri potest, et bona eius ad me pertinent, sed eius tutela, /ibi competit: nam ita lege Iunia cavetur. itaqui si ab eo cuius et in bonis et ex iure Quiritium ancilla fuerit facta sit Latina, ad eundem et bona et tutela pertinet.
168. Agnatis, qui legitimi tutores sunt, item /»âw«missoribus permissum est feminarum tutelam alii in iure cedere: pupillorum autem tutelam non est permissum cedere, quia non videtur onerosa, cum tempore pubertatis finiatur. (169.) Is autem cui ceditur tutela cessicius tutor vocatur. (170.) Quo mortuo aut capite diminuto revertitur ad eum tutorem tutela qui cessit. ipse quoque qui cessit, si mortuus a«t capite diminutus sit, a cessiao tutela discedit et revertitur ad eum, qui post eum qui cesserat secundum gradum in tutela habueriA (171-) Set quantum ad agnatos pertinet, nihil hoc tempore de cessicia tutela quaeritur, cum agnatorum tutelae in feminis lege Claudia sublatae sint. (172.) Sed fiduciarios quoque quidam puta
not by you also, she can be made a Latin, and her goods belong to me, but her tutelage devolves on you: for it is so provided by the Lex Junia. Therefore if she be made a Latin by one to whom she belonged both in bonis and ex jure Quiritium, the goods and the tutelage both go to the same man.
168. Agnates, who are legitimate tutors, and manumittors also, are allowed to transfer to others by cessio in jure* the tutelage of women; but not that of pupils, because this tutelage is not looked upon as onerous, inasmuch as it must terminate at the time of puberty. 169. He to whom a tutelage is thus ceded is called a tutor cessicius: 170. and on his death or capitis diminutio the tutelage returns to him who ceded it. So too, if the man himself who ceded it die or suffer capitis diminutio, the tutelage shifts from the cessicius and reverts to him who had the claim to the tutelage next in succession to the cessor. 171. But so far as relates to agnates, no questions now arise about cessician tutelage, inasmuch as the tutelages of agnates over women were abolished by the Lex Claudia *. 172. Some, however, have held that fiduciary tutors also have not power
1 11. 24. Ulpian, xt. 6-8. Note on 1. 135. 2 1. 157.
Tutela praetor ici. 59
verunt cedendae tutelae ius non habere, cum ipsi se oneri subiecerint. quod etsi placeat, in parente tamen qui filiam neptemve aut proneptem alteri ea lege mancipio dedit, ut sibi remanciparetur, remancipatamque manumisit, idem dici non debet, cum is et legitimus tutor habeatur; et non minus huic quam patronis honor praestandus est.
173. Praeterea senatusconsulto mu/zeribus permissum est in absentis tutoris locum alium petere: quo petito prior desinit. nec interest quam longe aberit is tutor. (174.) Set excipitur, ne in absentis patroni locum liceat liberte tutorem petere. (175.) Patroni a«tem loco habemus etiam paren/«» qui in e mancipio sibi remancipatam filiam neptemve aut proneptem manumissione legitimam tutelam nanctus est. huius quidem liberi fiduciarii tutoris loco numerantur: patroni autem liben eandem tutelam adipiscuntur, quam et pater eorum habuit. (176.) Sed ad certam quidem causam etiam in patroni absentis
to cede a tutelage, since they have voluntarily undertaken the burden. But although this be the rule, yet the same must not be laid down in respect of an ascendant who has given a daughter, granddaughter, or great-granddaughter in mancipium to another on condition that she be remancipated to him, and has manumitted her after the remancipation: since such an one is also' reckoned a legitimate tutor, and in no less degree must respect be paid to him than to a patron.
173. Further by a senatusconsultum women are allowed to apply for a tutor in the place of one who is absent, and on his appointment the original tutor ceases to act: nor does it matter how far the original tutor has gone away*. 174. But there is an exception to this, that a freedwoman may not apply for a tutor in the place of an absent patron. 175. We
also regard as in the place of a patron an ascendant who has acquired by manumission legitimate tutelage over a daughter, granddaughter or great-granddaughter remancipated to him out of mancipium3. The children, however, of such an one are regarded as fiduciary tutors4, whereas the children of a patron acquire the same kind of tutelage as
1 "Also," i.e. in addition to the 3 Ulpian, XI. 22.
two classes of legitimi already named 3 I. 172.
in S§ '55. ;65. Conf. I. 175. * D. 26. 4. 4.