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5 o Mancipium. Tutela.

tunc pater potestatem propriam reservare sibi videtur eo ipso, quo</ mancipio recipit. Ac ne is quidem dicitur invito eo cuiiLr in mancipio est censu libertatem consequi, quem pater ex noxali causa mancipio dedit, velut qui furti eius nomine damnatus est, et <mm mancipio actori dedit: nam hunc actor pro pecunia habet. (141.) In summa admonendi sumus, adversus eos quos in mancipio habemus nihil nobis co«tumeliose facere licere: añoquin iniuriarum actione tenebimur. Ac ne diu quidem in eo iure detinentur homines, set plerumque hoc fit dicis gratia uno comento; nisi señicet ex noxali causa manciparentur.

142. Transeamus nunc ad aliam divisionem. nam ex his personis, quae neque in potestate neque in manu neque in mancipio sunt, quaedam vel in tutela sunt vel in curatione, quaedam neutro iure ten en tur. videamus igitur quae in tutela vel in curatione sint: ita enim intellegmius ceter«s personas quae neutro iure tenentur.

reserving to himself in some measure his own potestas, from the very fact that he is to take him back from mancipium 1. And it is held also that a man cannot by census obtain his liberty against the will of the person in whose mancipium he is, when his father has given him in mancipium for a noxal cause s, for instance, when the father is mulcted on his account for theft, and gives him up to the plaintiff in mancipium: for the plaintiff has him instead of money. 141. Finally, we must observe that we are not allowed to inflict any indignity on those whom we have in mancipium, otherwise we shall be liable to an action for injury3. And men are not detained in this condition long, but in general it exists, as a mere formality, for a single instant; that is to say, unless they are mancipated for a noxal cause.

142. Now let us pass on to another division: for of those persons who are neither in potestas, manus or mancipium, some are in tutela or curatio, some are under neither of these powers. Let us, therefore, consider who are in tutela or curatio: for thus we shall perceive who the other persons are, who are under neither power.

1 He intends to give up indeed his See note on I. 132. potestas as actual father, but to re- 2 IV. 75, 79.

sume potestas as an adopting father. 3 III. 223, 224.

Tutela testamentaria. 51

143. Ac prius dispiciamus de his quae in tutela sunt.

144. Permissum est itaque parentibus liberis quos in potestate sua habent testamento tutores dare: masculini quidem sexus inpuberibus dumtaxat, feminini autem tam inpuberibus quam mtbilibus. veteres enim voluerunt feminas, etiamsi per

/ectae aetatis sint, propter animi levitatem in tutela esse. (145.) Itaque si quis filio filiaeque testamento tutorem dederit, et ambo ad pubertatem pervenerint, filius quidem desinit habere tutorem, filia vero nihilominus in tutela permanet: tantum enim ex ltge Iulia et Papia Рoрр«еa iure liberorum a tutela liberantur feminae. loquimur autem exceptis Virginibus Vestalibus quas etiam veteres in honorew sacerdotii liberas esse voluerunt: itaque etiam legi xii tabularum cautum est. (146.) Nepotibus autem neptibusque ita demum possumus testamento tutores dare, si post mortem nostram in patris sui potestatem iure recasuri non sint. itaque si filius meus mortis

143. And first let us consider about those who are under tutelage.

144. It is permitted then to ascendants to give tutors '(guardians) by testament to descendants whom they have in their potestas: to males indeed only so long as they are under puberty, but to females whether under or over puberty 1. For the ancients thought fit that women, although of full age, should for the feebleness of their intellect be under tutelage*. 145. If, therefore, a man has given by testament a tutor to his son and daughter, and both attain to puberty, the son indeed ceases to have the tutor, but the daughter still remains in tutelage; for by the Lex Julia et Papia Poppaea" it is only by the prerogative of children4 that women are freed from tutelage. We except the Vestal Virgins, however, from what we are saying, whom even the ancients wished, in honour of their office, to be free: and therefore it is so provided also in a law5 of the Twelve Tables. 146. But to grandsons and granddaughters we are only able to give tutors by testament, in case after our death they will not relapse into the potestas of their father *. Therefore if my son at the time of my death is in

1 Ulpian, x1. 1, 14—16. * 1. 194.

2 1. 190. Cic. pro Muraena, 12. 6 Tab. V. 1. 1.

3 Temp. Augusti. See note on 6 I. 127. 11. 211.

52 Tutela testamentaria.

meae tempore in potestate mea sit, nepotes quos ex eo habeo non poterint ex testamento meo habere tutorem, quamvis in potestate mea fuerint: scilicet quia mortuo me in patris sui potestate futuri s«nt. (147.) Cum tamen in compluribus alus causis postumi pro iam natis habeantur, et in hac causa placuit non minus postumis, quam iam natis testamento tutores dari posse: si modo in ea causa sint, ut si vivis nobis nasomtur, in potestate nostra fiant. hos etiam heredes instituere possumus, cum extraneos postumos heredes instituere permissum non sit. (148.) Uxori quae in manu est proinde aesi filiae, item nurui quae in fili/ manu est proinde ac nepti tutor dari potest. (149.) Rectissime autem tutor sic dari potest: Lucium Titium LiBERis MEis Tutorem Do. sed et si ita scriptum sit: LiBERis MEis vel uxoRi M£AE TiTius Tutor Esto, recte datus intellegitur. (150.) In persona tamen uxoris quae in manu est rece/ta est etiam tutoris optio, id est, ut liceat ei permittere quem velit ipsa tutorem sibi optare, hoc modo:

my potestas, the grandsons whom I have by him cannot have a tutor given them by my testament, although they are in my potestas: the reason of course being that after my death they will be in the potestas of their father. 147. But whereas in many other cases posthumous children are esteemed as already born, therefore in this case too it has been held that tutors can be given by testament to posthumous as well as existing children; provided only the children are of such a character that if they were born in our lifetime, they would be in our potestas. We may also appoint them our heirs, although we are not allowed to appoint the posthumous children of strangers as our heirs. 148. A tutor can be given to a wife in manus exactly as to a daughter 1, and to a daughter-in-law, who is in the manus of our son, exactly as to a granddaughter. 149. The most regular form of appointing a tutor is: "I give Lucius Titius as tutor to my descendants2:" but even if the wording be: "Titius be tutor to my descendants or to my wife," he is considered lawfully appointed. 150. In the case, however, of a wife who is in manus, the selection of a tutor is also allowed, i. e. she may be suffered to select such person as she Tutela testamentaria. Tutela legitima adgnatorum. 53

1 1.114. - 11. 289.

TiTiAE uxoRi MEAE TUTORis OPTiONEM Do. quo casu licet uxori eligere tutorem vel in omnes res vel in unam forte aut duas. (151.) Ceterum aut plena optio datur aut angusta. (152.) Plena ita dari solet, ut proxumi supra diximus. angusta ita dari solet: Titiae Uxori Meae Dumtaxat Tutor« Optionem Semel Do, aut Dumtaxat Bis Do. (153.) Quae optiones plurimum inter se differant. nam quae plenam optionem habet potest semel et bis et ter et saepius tutorem optare. quae vero anguslam habet optionem, si dumtaxat semel data est optio, amplius quam semel optare non potest: si tantum bis, amplius quam bis optandi facultatem non habet. (154.) Vocantur autem hi qui nominatim testamento tutores dantur, dativi; qui ex optione sumuntur, optivi.

155. Quibus testamento quidem tutor datus non sit, iis ex lege Xii agnati sunt tutores, qui vocantur legitimi. (156.) Sunt autem agnati per virilis sexus personas cognatione iuncti,

chooses for her tutor, in this form: "I give to Titia my wife the option of a tutor." In which case the wife has power to select a tutor either for all her affairs or, it may be, for one or two matters only1. 151. Moreover, the selection is allowed either without restraint or with restraint. 152. That without restraint is given in the form wè have stated just above. That with restraint is usually given thus: "I give to my wife Titia the selection of a tutor once only," or "I give it twice only." 153. Which selections differ very considerably from one another. For a woman who has selection without restraint can choose her tutor once, or twice, or thrice, or more times: but she who has selection with restraint, if it be given her once only, cannot choose more than once; if twice only, has not the power of choosing more than twice. 154. Tutors who are given by name in a testament are called dativi, those who are taken by virtue of selection, optivi.

155. To those who have no tutor given them by testament, the agnates are tutors by a law of the Twelve Tables, and they are called tutores legitimi*. 156. Now the agnates8 are those united in relationship through persons of the male sex,

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54 Tutela legitima adgnatorum.

quasi a patre cognati: veluti frater eodem patre natus, fratris filius neposve ex eo, item patruus et patrui filius et пфлг ex eo. At hi qui per feminini sexus personas cognatione iunguntur non sunt agnati, sed alias naturali iure cognati. itaque inter avunculum et sororis filium non agnatio est, sed cognado. item amitae, materterae filius non est mihi agnatus, set cognatus, et invicem scilicet ego illi eodem iure coniungör: quia qui nascuntur patris, non matris familiam sequuntur. (157.) Sed olim quidem, quantum ad legem хi l tabularum attinc/, etiam feminae agnatos habebant tutores. iet postea lex Claud/a lata est quae, quod ad feminas attinrf, tutelas illas sustulit. itaque masculus quidem inpubes fratrem puberem aut patruum habet tutorem; feminae vero talem habere tutorem non intelleguntur. (158.) Set agnationis quidem ius capitis diminutione perimitur, cognitionis vero ius non commutatur: quia civilis ratio civilia qu/di.n iura corrumpere potest, naturalia vero non potest.

relations, that is to say, through the father: for instance a brother born from the same father, the son of that brother, and the grandson by that son; an uncle on the father's side, that uncle's son, and his grandson by that son. But those who are joined in relationship through persons of the female sex are not agnates, but merely cognates by natural right. Therefore there is no agnation between a mother's brother and a sister's son, but only cognation. Likewise the son of my father's sister or of my mother's sister is not my agnate, but my cognate, and conversely of course I am joined to him by the same tie: because children follow the family of their father, not of their mother1. 157. In olden times, indeed, so far as the law of the Twelve Tables is concerned, women too had agnates for tutors, but afterwards the Lex Claudia" was passed, which abolished these tutelages so far as relates to women. A male, therefore, under the age of puberty will have as tutor his brother over the age of puberty or his father's brother; but women, it is well known, have not a tutor of that kind. 158. By capitis diminutio the right of agnation is destroyed, but that of cognation is not changed: because a civil law doctrine may destroy civil law rights, but it cannot destroy those of natural law.

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