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Per vindicationem. 135
res quae pondere, numero, mensura constant, placuit sufficere si mortis tempore sint ex iure Quiritium testatoris, veluti vinum, oleum, frumentum, pecuniam numeratam. ceteras res vero placuit utroque tempore testatoris ex iure Quiritium esse debere, id est et quo faceret /estamentum et quo moreretur: alioquin inutile est legatum. (197.) Sed sane hoc ita est iure civili. Postea vero auctore Nerone Caesare senatusconsultum factum est, quo cautum est, ut si eam rem quisque legaverit quae eius numquam fuerit, perinde utile sit legatum, atque si optimo iure relictum esset. optumum autem ius est per damnationem legatum; quo genere etiam aliena res legari potest, sicut inferius apparebit. (198.) Sed si quis rem suam legaverit, deinde post testamentum factum eam alienaverit, plerique putant non solum iure civili inutile esse legatum, sed nee ex senatusconsulto confirmari. quod ideo dictum est, quia etsi per damnationem ali
which depend on weight, number, or measure, that it is sufficient if they be the testator's ex jure Quiritium at the time of his death; for instance, wine, oil, corn, coin. Whilst it has been ruled that other things ought to be the testator's ex jure Quiritium at both times, that is to say, both at the time he made the testament and at the time he died; otherwise the legacy is invalid. 197. This is so undoubtedly by the civil law. But, afterwards, at the instance of Nero Caesar, a senatusconsultum was enacted, wherein it was provided that if a man bequeathed a thing which had never been his, the legacy should be as valid as if it had been bequeathed in the most advantageous form1. Now the most advantageous form is a legacy by damnation: by which kind even the property of another can be bequeathed, as will appear below". 198. But if a man bequeath a thing of his own, and then after the making of his testament, alienate it, it is the general opinion that the legacy is not only invalid at the civil law, but that it is not even upheld by the senatusconsultum. The reason of this being so laid down is that it is generally held
1 Nero's S.C. enacted that when "utquod minus pactis (aptis?) vera legacy was invalid on account of bis legatum est, perinde sit ac si opimproper words being used, and there timo jure legatum esset." Ulpian, was no other objection to be taken xxiv. 11 a. to it, the legacy should be upheld: s II. 202.
136 Per vindicationem.
quis rem suam legaverit eamque postea alienaverit, plerique putant, licet ipso iure debeatur legatum, tamen legatarium petentem per exceptionem doli mali repe/li quasi contra voluntatem defuncti petat. (199.) Illud constat, si duobus pluribusve per vindicationem eadem res legata sit, sive coniunctim sive disiunctim, si omnes veniant ad legatum, partes ad singulos pertinere, et deficientis portionem collegatario adcrescere. coniunctim autem ita legatur: Titio Et Seio Hominem Stichum Do Lego; dmunctim ita: Lucio Titio Hominem Stichum Do Lego. Seio Eundem Hominem Do Lego. (200.) lïlud quaeritur, quod sub condicione per vindicationem legatum est, pendente condicione cuius esset. Nostri praeceptores heredis esse putant exemplo statuliberi, id est eius servi qui testamento sub aliqua condicione liber esse iussus est, quem constat interea heredis servum esse. sed diverse scholae auctores putant nullius interim eam rem esse; quod multo magis dicunt de eo
that even if a man bequeath his property by damnation and afterwards alienate it, although by the letter of the law the legacy is due, yet the legatee on demanding it will be defeated by an exceptio doli mali1, because he makes demand contrary to the will of the deceased. 199. It is an acknowledged rule that if the same thing be left to two or more persons by vindication, whether conjointly or disjointly, and if all accept the legacy, equal portions go to each, and the portion of one not taking accrues to his co-legatee. Now a legacy is left conjointly thus: "I give and bequeath the man Stichus to Titius and Seius;" disjointly, thus: "I give and bequeath to Lucius Titius the man Stichus. I give and bequeath to Seius the same man." 200. This question arises, whose is a legacy left by vindication under a condition, whilst the condition is unfulfilled? Our authorities think it belongs to the heir, after the precedent of the statuliber", i. e. the slave who is in a testament ordered to become free under some condition, and who, it is admitted, is the slave of the heir for the meantime. But the authorities of the other school think that the thing belongs to no one in the interim: and they assert this still
Per damnationem. 137
quod sine condicione pure legatum est, antequam legatarius adfrnittat legatum.
201. Per damnationem hoc modo legamus: Hères Meus
STICATJM SERVUM MEUM DARE DAMNAS ESTO. sed et si DATO
scriptum sit, per damnationem legatum est. (202.) Quo genere legati etiam aliena res legari potest, ita ut heres redimere et praestare aut aestimationem eius dare debeat. (203.) Ea quoque res quae in rerum natura non est, si modo futura est, per damnationem legari potest, velut fructus qui in illo fundo nati erunt, aut quod ex illa ancilla natum erit. (204.) Quod autem ita legatum est, post aditam hereditatem, etiamsi pure legatum est, non ut per vindicationem legatum continuo legatario adquiritur, sed nihilominus heredis est. ideo legatarius in personam agere debet, id est intendere heredem sibi dare oportere: et tum heres rem, si mancipi sit, mancipio dare aut in iure cedere possessionemque tradere debet; si nec mancipi sit, sufficit si tradiderit. nam si mancipi rem tantam tradiderit,
more strongly as to a thing left simply without condition, before the legatee accepts the legacy.
201. We bequeath by damnation in the following manner: "Let my heir be bound to give Stichus my slave :" and it is also a legacy by damnation if the wording be "let him give." 202. By which kind of legacy even a thing belonging to another may be bequeathed, so that the heir has to purchase and deliver it or give its value. 203. By damnation also can be bequeathed a thing which is not in existence, if only it will come into existence, as for instance, the fruits which shall spring up in a certain field, or the offspring which shall be born from a certain female slave. 204. A thing thus bequeathed does not at once vest in the legatee after the inheritance is entered upon, like a legacy by vindication, even though it be bequeathed unconditionally, but still belongs to the heir. Therefore the legatee must bring a personal action, i.e. plead that the heir is bound to give him the thing1: and then, if it be a res mancipi, the heir must give it by mancipium*, or make cessio in jure* of it, and deliver up the possession: if it be a res nee mancipi, it is enough that he deliver it. For if he merely deliver a res mancipi, without
1 iv. 1. s 1. 119. 3 п. 14.
138 Per damnationem^ Caduca.
nec mancipaverit, usucapione dumtaxat pleno iure fit legatarii: finitur autem «.racapio, ut supra quoque diximus, mobilium quidem rerum anno, earum vero quae solo tenentur, biennio. (205.) Est et alia differentia inter legatum per vindicationem et per damnationem : si enim eadem res duobus pluribusve per damnarfionem legata sit, si quidem coniunctim, plane singulis partei debentur sicut in per vindicationem legato, si vexo disiunctim, singulis solida res debetur, ut scilicet heres alteri rem, alteri aestimationem eius praestare debeat. et in coniunctis deficientis portio non ad collegatarium pertinet, sed in hereditate remanet. 206. Quod autem diximus deficientis portionem in per damnationem quidem legato in hereditate retinen, in per vindicationem vero collegatario accrescere, admonendi sumus ante legem Papiam iure civili ita fuisse: post legem vero Papiam deficientis portio caduca fit et ad eos pertinet qui in eo testamento liberos habent. (207.) Et quamvis prima causa sit in
mancipating it, it only becomes the legatee's in full title by usucapion: and usucapion, as we have also said above1, is completed in the case of moveable things in one year, but in the case of those connected with the soil in two. 205. There is also another difference between a legacy by vindication and one by damnation : for supposing the same thing be bequeathed to two or more persons by damnation, if it be conjointly, clearly equal portions are due to each as in a legacy by vindication: but if disjointly, the whole thing is due to each, so that in fact the heir must give up the thing to one and its value to the other. Also, in conjoint legacies, the portion of one who fails to take does not belong to his co-legatee, but remains in the inheritance.
206. But as to our statement that the portion of one failing to take is retained in the inheritance in the case of a legacy by damnation, but accrues to the co-legatee in the case of one by vindication: we must be reminded that it was so by the civil law before the Lex Papia: but that now, when the Lex Papia" has been passed, the portion of one failing becomes a lapse, and belongs to those persons named in the testament who have children. 207. And although in claiming lapses, the first
1 II. 4t. 2 A.d. 10. See note (G) in Appendix.
Sinendi modo. 139
caducis vindicandis heredum liberos habentium, deinde, si heredes liberos non habeant, legatariorum liberos habentium, tamen ipsa lege Papia significatur, ut collegatarius coniunctus, si liberos habeat, potior sit heredibus, etiamsi liberos habebunt. (208.) sed plerisque placuit, quantum ad hoc ius quod lege Papia coniunctis constituitur, nihil interesse utrum per vindicationem an per damnationem legatum sit.
209. Sinendi modo ita legamus: Heres Meus Damnas Esto
SINERE LUCIUM TITIUM HOMINEM STICtfUM SUMERE SIBIQUE
Habere. (210.) Quod genus legati plus quidem habet quam per vindicationem legatum, minus autem quam per damnationem. nam eo modo non solum suam rem testator utiliter legare potest, sed etiam heredis sui: cum alioquin per vindicationem nisi suam rem legare non potest; per damnationem autem cuiuslibet extranei rem legare potest. (211.) Sed si quidem mortis testatoris tempore reí ipsius testatoris sit vel heredis, plane utile legatum est, etiamsi testamenti faciundi tempore neutrius merit. (212.) Quodsi post mortem testatoris
right belongs to the heirs who have children, and then, if the heirs have no children, the right belongs to the legatees who have children, yet it is laid down in the Lex Papia itself, that a co-legatee conjoined (with the person who fails to take), if he have children, is to have a claim prior to that of the heirs, even though they have children. 208. But so far as concerns this right established by the Lex Papia for conjoint legatees, it is generally held that it is immaterial whether the legacy be by vindication or by damnation.
209. We bequeath sinendi modo thus: "Let my heir be bound to allow Lucius Titius to take the man Stichus and have him for himself." 210. Which kind of legacy is more extensive than one by vindication, but less extensive than one by damnation. For in this way a testator can validly bequeath not only his own property, but also that of his heir. Whereas, on the other hand, by vindication he cannot bequeath anything but his own property: whilst by damnation he can bequeath the property of any stranger. 211. Now if the thing at the time of the testator's death belong either to him or to the heir, the legacy is undoubtedly valid, even though it belonged to neither at the time the testament was made. 212. But if the thing commenced to be the property